LIBERTARIANISM

Libertarianism is a political philosophy that upholds individual liberty, especially freedom of expression and action. Libertarianism includes diverse beliefs and organizations—all advocate either the minimization or the elimination of the state, and the goal of maximizing individual liberty and freedom.

Libertarian schools of thought differ over the degree to which the state should be reduced, with minarchists advocating reduction to only state protection from aggression, theft, breach of contract, and fraud, and anarchists advocating complete elimination of the state. Additionally, some schools are supportive of private property rights in the ownership of unappropriated land and natural resources while others reject such private ownership and often support common ownership instead. Another distinction can be made among libertarians who support private ownership and co-operative ownership of the means of production; the former generally supporting a capitalist economy, the latter a libertarian socialist economic system.
Contents

1 Overview
1.1 Descriptions by prominent libertarians
2 History
3 Principles
3.1 State and economy
3.2 Ethical foundations
3.3 Political tactics
4 Libertarian philosophies
4.1 Individualism
4.2 Libertarian conservatism and Libertarian Constitutionalist
4.3 Left-libertarianism
4.4 Anarchism
4.5 Libertarian socialism
4.6 Anarcho-capitalism
4.7 Minarchism
4.8 Geolibertarianism
4.9 Self-ownership
5 Influential libertarian philosophers
6 Libertarian political parties
7 Libertarian-leaning groups and movements
8 See also
9 References
10 Bibliography
11 External links

Overview

Libertarians exhibit differing approaches in areas such as the treatment of property rights, especially with respect to natural resources, with some libertarians advocating private ownership rights, while others hold that private ownership should be avoided as being inconsistent with the basic principles of libertarianism.Respectively, these groups are sometimes categorized as right-libertarian and left-libertarian variants of libertarianism, not to be confused with the more common meanings of “right” and “left”. “Right libertarianism” has been described as the better known form of libertarianism in the United States. Despite these categorizations, libertarians typically reject being described as either “left” or “right.”

Minarchists advocate a minimal state, while anarcho-capitalists believe aggression should be countered without the state. Libertarian socialists believe that liberty is best achieved through large-scale decentralization to empower workers, with the result of eliminating both the state and private capitalist organizations, which they view as coercive. Organizations of libertarians may include members with disparate libertarian philosophies held together by common purposes or tenets.

Economist Karl Widerquist writes of left-libertarianism and libertarian socialism as being distinct ideologies, each describing itself as “libertarianism”. Also identified is a large faction advocating minarchism, though libertarianism has also long been associated with anarchism (and sometimes is used as a synonym for such), especially outside of the United States. Among libertarians, anarchism remains one of the significant branches of thought.

Descriptions by prominent libertarians

Philosopher Roderick T. Long defines libertarianism as “any political position that advocates a radical redistribution of power [either “total or merely substantial”] from the coercive state to voluntary associations of free individuals”, whether “voluntary association” takes the form of the free market or of communal co-operatives. David Boaz, libertarian writer and vice president of the Cato Institute, writes that, “Libertarianism is the view that each person has the right to live his life in any way he chooses so long as he respects the equal rights of others” and that, “Libertarians defend each person’s right to life, liberty, and property—rights that people have naturally, before governments are created.”

The US Libertarian Party is the third largest political party in the United States (with 235,500 registered voters, as of 2008)[citation needed]. According to the party, libertarians support maximum liberty in both personal and economic matters. They advocate a much smaller government; one that is limited to protecting individuals from coercion and violence. Libertarians embrace individual responsibility, oppose government bureaucracy and taxes, promote private charity, tolerate diverse lifestyles, support the free market, and defend civil liberties.

Linguist and political activist Noam Chomsky often self-identifies as a Libertarian Socialist, and argues that “… any form of coercion or repression, any form of autocratic control of some domain of existence,” such as private property or state control, “can be justified, if at all, only in terms of the need for subsistence, or the need for survival, or the need for defense against some horrible fate … It cannot be justified intrinsically.”

History

During the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, “liberal” ideas flourished in Europe and North America; they challenged the rule of monarchs and the church and emphasizing reason, science, individual liberty, free markets, consent of the governed and limited government Libertarians of various schools were influenced by classical liberal ideas.

Words such as liberal and liberty come from the Latin root liber, which means “free.” The term libertarian in a metaphysical or philosophical sense was first used by late-Enlightenment free-thinkers to refer to those who believed in free will, as opposed to determinism. The first recorded use was in 1789 by William Belsham in a discussion of free will and in opposition to “necessitarian” (or determinist) views.

The use of the word “libertarian” to describe a set of political positions can be tracked to the French cognate, libertaire, which was coined in 1857 by French anarchist communist Joseph Déjacque who used the term to distinguish his libertarian communist approach from the mutualism advocated by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. Hence libertarian has been used as a synonym for left-wing anarchism or libertarian socialism since the 1890s.

Peter Kropotkin’s The Great French Revolution (1909) asserts that the principles of anarchism had their origin in the directly democratic sections of Paris. According to the same author’s 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica article on anarchism, the economic and, in particular, the mutual banking ideas of Proudhon were applied by supporters in the United States. The article states that, “It would be impossible to represent here, in a short sketch, the penetration, on the one hand, of anarchist ideas into modern literature, and the influence, on the other hand, which the libertarian ideas of the best contemporary writers have exercised upon the development of anarchism.” Writers he names include John Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, Jean-Marie Guyau, Alfred Jules Émile Fouillée, Multatuli, Richard Wagner, Friedrich Nietzsche, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William Lloyd Garrison and Henry David Thoreau. Numerous left libertarians or libertarian socialists around the world have continued to label themselves as libertarian.

During the early 20th century modern liberalism in the United States began to take a more statist approach to economic regulation.While conservatism in Europe continued to mean conserving hierarchical class structures through state control of society and the economy, some conservatives in the United States began to refer to conserving traditions of liberty. This was especially true of the Old Right, who opposed the New Deal and U.S. military interventions in World War I and World War II. Those who held to the earlier liberal views began to call themselves market liberals, classic liberals or libertarians to distinguish themselves. The Austrian School of economics, influenced by Frédéric Bastiat and later by Ludwig von Mises, also had an impact on such libertarians.

In the 1940s libertarianism in the United States was influenced by Ayn Rand’s international bestsellers The Fountainhead (1943) and Atlas Shrugged (1957), and later her books about her philosophy of Objectivism. In 1943 two other women also published influential pro-freedom books: Rose Wilder Lane’s The Discovery of Freedom and Isabel Paterson’s The God of the Machine.

In the 1950s many with “Old Right” or classical liberal beliefs in the United States began to describe themselves as “libertarian.” Arizona United States Senator Barry Goldwater’s libertarian-oriented challenge to authority also influenced the libertarian movement, through his book The Conscience of a Conservative and his run for president in 1964. Goldwater’s speech writer, Karl Hess, became a leading libertarian writer and activist.

During the 1960s the Vietnam War split the uneasy alliance between growing numbers of self-identified libertarians, anarchist libertarians, and more traditional conservatives who believed in limiting liberty to uphold moral virtues. Libertarians opposed to the war joined the draft resistance and peace movements and began founding their own publications, like Murray Rothbard’s The Libertarian Forum and organizations like the Radical Libertarian Alliance and the Society for Individual Liberty.The split was finalized in 1971 when conservative leader William F. Buckley, Jr., in a 1971 New York Times article, attempted to divorce libertarianism from the freedom movement. He wrote: “The ideological licentiousness that rages through America today makes anarchy attractive to the simple-minded. Even to the ingeniously simple-minded.”

In 1971, David Nolan and a few friends formed the Libertarian Party. Attracting former Democrats, Republicans and independents, the party has run a presidential candidate every election year since 1972. By 2006, polls showed that 15 percent of American voters identified themselves as libertarian. Over the years, dozens of libertarian political parties have been formed worldwide. Educational organizations like the Center for Libertarian Studies and the Cato Institute were formed in the 1970s, and others have been created since then.

Philosophical libertarianism gained a significant measure of recognition in academia with the publication of Harvard University professor Robert Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia in 1974. The book won a National Book Award in 1975. According to libertarian essayist Roy Childs, “Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and Utopia single-handedly established the legitimacy of libertarianism as a political theory in the world of academia.”

Academics as well as proponents of the free market perspectives note that free-market libertarianism has been successfully propagated beyond the United States since the 1970s via think tanks and political parties and that libertarianism is increasingly viewed worldwide as a free market position. However, Libertarian socialists Noam Chomsky, Colin Ward and others say the term is still considered a synonym of anarchism in countries other than the US.

Principles

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states a strict view of libertarianism “holds that agents initially fully own themselves and have moral powers to acquire property rights in external things under certain conditions,” and that “in a looser sense, libertarianism is any view that approximates the strict view.” Also noted is that libertarianism is not a “right-wing” doctrine because of its opposition to laws restricting adult consensual sexual relationships and drug use, and its opposition to imposing religious views or practices and compulsory military service. The Stanford Encyclopedia further describes versions of libertarianism, such as “left-libertarianism” stating that this philosophy also endorses full self-ownership, but “differs on unappropriated natural resources (land, air, water, etc.).” “Right-libertarianism” holds that such resources may be appropriated by individuals while “left-libertarianism” holds that they belong to everyone and must be distributed in some egalitarian manner. According to Sheldon Richman, “libertarianism is premised on the dignity and self-ownership of the individual, which sexism and racism deny. Thus all forms of collectivist hierarchy undermine the libertarian attitude and hence the prospects for a free society.”

As promoted by the United States Libertarian Party, libertarianism is the belief that individuals should be free to make choices for themselves and to accept responsibility for the consequences of the choices they make. The typical description given is that no individual, group, or government may initiate force against any other individual, group, or government. In this description, libertarian support of an individual’s right to make choices in life does not necessarily translate into approval or disapproval of those choices.

Libertarianism is attractive because “(1) it provides significant moral liberty of action, (2) it provides significant moral protection against interference from others, and (3) it is sensitive to what the past was like (e.g., what agreements were made and what rights violations took place).” Libertarians generally advocate the maximization of freedom of thought and action with few exceptions. One exception shared by libertarians is that the actions of an individual should not infringe upon the freedom of any other person, a premise believed by many libertarians to be expressed best through the non-aggression principle.

State and economy

Some minarchists believe a minimal state would be preferable, while more anarchist libertarians hold the belief that society functioning without any recognized government is preferable. Matt Zwolinski, writing for the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, describes the minimal state as providing only law enforcement, a judicial assembly, and armed forces; also described is the right-libertarian view called anarcho-capitalism which holds that government can be completely abolished because private companies working for profit should provide the court systems, military, and police forces. Alternatively, some of the more anarchist libertarians subscribe to libertarian socialism, which seeks the elimination of government with a view on property rights that differs from anarcho-capitalism. Some ideals of libertarians exhibit a sharp contrast in the treatment of property rights, especially with respect to natural resources, with some libertarians advocating the grant of strong private ownership rights, and others holding that private ownership of certain resources allows people to take what is others have ownership of and, thus, should be avoided as being inconsistent with the basic principles of libertarianism. Broadly, the view of ownership is one key distinction between left-libertarianism and right-libertarianism.

According to Matt Zwolinski:

Libertarians are committed to the belief that individuals, and not states or groups of any other kind, are both ontologically and normatively primary; that individuals have rights against certain kinds of forcible interference on the part of others; that liberty, understood as non-interference, is the only thing that can be legitimately demanded of others as a matter of legal or political right; that robust property rights and the economic liberty that follows from their consistent recognition are of central importance in respecting individual liberty; that social order is not at odds with but develops out of individual liberty; that the only proper use of coercion is defensive or to rectify an error; that governments are bound by essentially the same moral principles as individuals; and that most existing and historical governments have acted improperly insofar as they have utilized coercion for plunder, aggression, redistribution, and other purposes beyond the protection of individual liberty.

Ethical foundations

Friedman and others differentiate between two main kinds of libertarianism on the basis of the grounds used to justify individual liberty. They argue that deontological libertarians are focused on moral rules, and believe that the test of the morality of an act is whether it constitutes an “initiation of force,” regarding force as permissible only in defense of people or property. On the other hand, consequentialist libertarians are solely concerned with whether an act has favourable consequences. These latter libertarians focus on the benefits of introducing more “liberty” into society. Some libertarianism may be a hybrid of consequentialism and deontology.

The Nolan chart, referenced by many libertarians, expands upon the traditional “right-left” spectrum.

All schools of libertarianism support strong personal rights to life and liberty, though there is disagreement on the subject of private property. “Right libertarianism” advocates a right to private property, including property in the means of production, minimal government regulation of that property, minimal taxation, and rejection of the welfare state, all within the context of the rule of law. Some pro-property libertarians are anarchists who call for the elimination of the state.

Isaiah Berlin’s 1958 essay “Two Concepts of Liberty” describes a difference between negative liberty, which limits the power of the state to interfere, and positive liberty, in which a paternalistic state helps individuals achieve self-realization and self-determination. He believed these were rival and incompatible interpretations of liberty, and held that demands for positive liberty lead to authoritarianism.

Libertarians can broadly be characterized as holding four ethical views: consequentialism, deontological theories, contractarianism, and class-struggle normative beliefs. The main divide is between consequentialist libertarianism—which is support for a large degree of “liberty” because it leads to favorable consequences, such as prosperity or efficiency—and deontological libertarianism (also known as “rights-theorist libertarianism,” “natural rights libertarianism,” or “libertarian moralism”), which is a philosophy based on belief in moral self-ownership and opposition to “initiation of force” and fraud. Others combine a hybrid of consequentialist and deontologist thinking. Another view, contractarian libertarianism, holds that any legitimate authority of government derives not from the consent of the governed, but from contract or mutual agreement, though this can be seen as reductible to consequentialism or deontologism depending on what grounds contracts are justified. Some Libertarian Socialists with backgrounds influenced by Marxism reject deontological and consequential approaches and use normative class-struggle methodologies rooted in Hegelian thought to justify direct action in pursuit of liberty

Libertarians maintain that what is immoral for the individual must necessarily be immoral for all state agents and that the state should not be above the law.

Libertarianism is not a complete moral or aesthetic theory; it is only a political theory, that is, the subset of moral theory that deals with the proper role of violence in social life. Thus, while libertarianism holds that the state should not, for instance, forcibly prohibit prostitution, it makes no judgments on whether prostitution is an ethical activity; indeed, some libertarians condemn prostitution as immoral. Walter Block writes, “How, then, can we defend the immoral activities of some market actors? This stems from the philosophy of libertarianism, which is limited to analyzing one single problem. It asks, under what conditions is violence justified? And it answers, violence is justified only for purposes of defense, or in response to prior aggression, or in retaliation against it. This means, among other things, that government is not justified in fining, punishing, incarcerating, imposing death penalties on people who act in an immoral manner—as long as they refrain from threatening or initiating physical violence on the persons or property of others.”

Political tactics

The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (May 2011)

Libertarian socialism has historically tended to avoid normative declarations of eternal values, and to focus on emancipatory political tactics. This chiefly relates to the concept of direct action, as producing immediate real change, and as producing liberated individual and collective subjects. While disputes occur regarding correct tactics (such as the dispute over “party” between platformists and syndicalists), these tend to be subsumed beneath a general preference for social action over idealistic declaration or political analysis.

Libertarian philosophies

Libertarian philosophies express a view on one or more libertarian issues such as how much state would survive in a libertarian society and how much property should be held privately by individuals and groups. A libertarian individual or group may adhere to several of these philosophies and not identify with these terms, often identifying themselves simply as “libertarian”. The following are some of the philosophies that are included under a broad concept of “libertarianism”.

Individualism

Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that stresses “the moral worth of the individual”. Individualists promote the exercise of one’s goals and desires and so independence and self-reliance while opposing most external interference upon one’s own interests, whether by society, family or any other group or institution.

Individualism makes the individual its focus and so it starts “with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation.” Classical liberalism (including libertarianism), existentialism and anarchism (especially individualist anarchism) are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis.

Individualism is thus also associated with artistic and bohemian interests and lifestyles where there is a tendency towards self creation and experimentation as opposed to tradition or popular mass opinions and behaviors as so also with humanist philosophical positions and ethics.

Libertarian conservatism and Libertarian Constitutionalist

Libertarian conservatism (also known as “conservative libertarianism”, “constitutional libertarianism” or “right-libertarianism”) describes certain political ideologies that melds libertarian and conservative ideas, often called “fusionism.” Anthony Gregory writes that right, or conservative, “libertarianism can refer to any number of varying and at times mutually exclusive political orientations” such as being “interested mainly in ‘economic freedoms'”; following the “conservative lifestyle of right-libertarians”; seeking “others to embrace their own conservative lifestyle”; considering big business “as a great victim of the state”; favoring a “strong national defense”; and having “an Old Right opposition to empire.”

Conservatives hold that shared values, morals, standards, and traditions are necessary for social order while libertarians consider individual liberty as the highest value.

Some “constitutional libertarians” like U.S. Representative Ron Paul and Judge Andrew Napolitano believe liberty can be obtained through proper interpretation of the United States Constitution, something that would not allow federal incursions on the economy and civil liberties.

Left-libertarianism

Left-libertarianism is usually regarded as a doctrine that has an egalitarian view concerning natural resources, holding that it is not legitimate for someone to claim private ownership of such resources to the detriment of others. Most left libertarians support some form of income redistribution on the grounds of a claim by each individual to be entitled to an equal share of natural resources, including Georgist supporters of a single tax. Some claim it is standard for left-libertarians to support substantial redistributive welfare programs. Left libertarianism is defended by contemporary theorists such as Peter Vallentyne, Hillel Steiner and Michael Otsuka. The term is also sometimes used as a synonym for libertarian socialism.

The Encyclopedia of Political Theory describes Noam Chomsky as an anti-statist left-libertarian. Chomsky shares an egalitarian view of resources such as natural capital. Left-libertarians like Chomsky promote free association in place of governments and institutions of capitalism (if defined as private ownership and control over means of production). Chomsky has described this libertarian socialism as an anarchist philosophy.

Some members of the U.S. libertarian movement, including the late Samuel Edward Konkin and members of the Alliance of the Libertarian Left such as Roderick Long and Gary Chartier, support property rights and identify themselves with the political left for a variety of reasons. They tend to oppose intellectual property, war, and state policies they believe cause poverty.

Anarchism

Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy. It seeks to diminish or even abolish authority in the conduct of human relations.

The central tendency of anarchism as a mass social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism being primarily a philosophical or literary phenomenon. Some anarchists fundamentally oppose all forms of aggression, supporting self-defense or non-violence (anarcho-pacifism), while others have supported the use of some coercive measures, including violent revolution and propaganda of the deed, on the path to an anarchist society.

Libertarian socialism

Libertarian socialism promotes a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic, stateless society without private property in the means of production. Libertarian socialism promotes free association in place of government. Its adherents oppose what they view as the coercive social relations of capitalism, such as wage labor. The term “libertarian socialism” is used by adherents to differentiate their politics from state socialism, or as a synonym for socialist anarchism.

Libertarian socialists assert that a society based on freedom and equality can be achieved through abolishing authoritarian control of the means of production. Libertarian socialists generally place their hopes in decentralized means of direct democracy such as municipalities, citizens’ assemblies, trade unions and workers’ councils.

Libertarian socialism includes most varieties of anarchism (especially anarchist communism, anarchist collectivism, anarcho-syndicalism, mutualism and social ecology) as well as some varieties of Marxism (such as autonomism and council communism), and some versions of individualist anarchism. Some varieties of Fabianism and socialist social-democracy, which do not immediately or absolutely seek stateless societies or the abolition of capitalism, are libertarian socialist.

Anarcho-capitalism

Anarcho-capitalism (also known as “libertarian anarchy” or “market anarchism” or “free market anarchism”) is a libertarian and an individualist anarchist political philosophy that advocates the elimination of the state and the provision of its services through the free market. In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts, and all other security services are provided by voluntarily funded competitors such as private defense agencies rather than through compulsory taxation. Anarcho-capitalism has been described as a radical form of libertarianism.

Minarchism

Minarchism refers to the belief in a state limited to police forces, courts, and a military, with some theories also including prisons. In minarchism, the state neither regulates nor intervenes in personal choices and business practices, except to protect against aggression, theft, breach of contract, and fraud. Both market anarchists and minarchists oppose victimless crimes, the War on Drugs, compulsory education, and conscription at all levels of government.

Geolibertarianism

Geolibertarianism is a political movement that strives to reconcile libertarianism and Georgism (or “geoism”).The term was coined by Fred Foldvary. Geolibertarians are advocates of geoism, which is the position that all land is a common asset to which all individuals have an equal right to access, and therefore if individuals claim the land as their property they must pay rent to the community for doing so. Rent need not be paid for the mere use of land, but only for the right to exclude others from that land, and for the protection of one’s title by government. They simultaneously agree with the libertarian position that each individual has an exclusive right to the fruits of his or her labor as their private property, as opposed to this product being owned collectively by society or the community, and that “one’s labor, wages, and the products of labor” should not be taxed. In agreement with traditional libertarians they advocate “full civil liberties, with no crimes unless there are victims who have been invaded.” In the voluntary geolibertarianism described by Foldvary, rent would be collected by private associations with the opportunity to secede from a geocommunity if desired.

Self-ownership

Self-ownership (or sovereignty of the individual, individual sovereignty or individual autonomy) is the concept of property in one’s own person, expressed as the moral or natural right of a person to be the exclusive controller of his own body and life. According to G. Cohen, the concept of self-ownership is that “each person enjoys, over himself and his powers, full and exclusive rights of control and use, and therefore owes no service or product to anyone else that he has not contracted to supply.”

Influential libertarian philosophers

Mikhail Bakunin the main theorist of libertarian socialism and ideological father of much of the libertarian left.
Frédéric Bastiat, classical liberal theorist, political economist, and member of the French assembly.
Murray Bookchin leading theorist of the social ecology movement, founder of libertarian municipalism and harsh critic of individualist anarchism.
William Godwin the first modern proponent of anarchism (though he never referred to himself as such) whose highly libertarian philosophy is outlined in his 1793 book Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and its Influence on Modern Morals and Manners.
Robert Nozick author of Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), a libertarian answer to John Rawls’s A Theory of Justice (1971) and a professor at Harvard University.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon the first self described anarchist and theorist of what would eventually be called mutualism, an anti-statist form of market socialism.
Ayn Rand the originator of Objectivism. While she rejected the “libertarian” label, and libertarianism per se, Brian Doherty has described her as “the most popular and influential libertarian figure of the twentieth century.”
Murray Rothbard an American author, and economist who helped define modern American libertarianism and popularized “anarcho-capitalism”
Benjamin Tucker was the leading theorist of American individualist and egoist anarchism (though Max Stirner is often seen as the father of general Individualist Anarchism), his writings influenced both right and left wing libertarianism, though he was a self described socialist.
Josiah Warren the first known American anarchist and author of the first anarchist periodical The Peaceful Revolutionist.

Libertarian political parties

Historically libertarians have typically eschewed electoral politics and so formed activist organisations rather than political parties. However, since the 1970s, a number of pro-free market libertarian parties have been established.

In the United States, the Libertarian Party of the United States was formed in 1972. The Libertarian Party is the third largest American political party, with over 225,000 registered voters in the 35 states that allow registration as a libertarian and has hundreds of party candidates elected or appointed to public office, and has run thousands for office. The party believes the answer to America’s political problems is freedom, specifically “a free-market economy,” “a dedication to civil liberties and personal freedom,” and “a foreign policy of non-intervention, peace, and free trade.” Its platform contains twenty eight planks.

The Danish Socialist People’s Party is one of the political parties considered to be left-libertarian.

Australia has a small Libertarian Party, but it is not registered with the Australian Electoral Commission.

A number of countries have libertarian parties that run candidates for political office. In the Netherlands the Libertarische Partij. Brazil’s Partido Libertários is a nascent libertarian party.

Numerous socialist groups around the world have labeled themselves as libertarian throughout the twentieth century.These include revolutionary workers’ movements such as the Libertarian Youth (FIJL).[citation needed] In Latin America, the Argentine Libertarian Federation was founded in 1935. Mexico’s Zapatista Army (EZLN) is a social movement of indigenous peoples that takes its ideology to some extent from libertarian influences.[citation needed] It struggles for communal control of land seized in opposition to large-scale ranching oligarchies.

Scholars have typified the European “new social movements” as that “‘family’ of left-libertarian movements in…France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland”;

In the United States libertarian organizations have included left-libertarian groups such as the Libertarian League and the Libertarian Book Club.[citation needed] However, since the 1950s, many American libertarian organizations have adopted a free market, capitalist stance; these include the Center for Libertarian Studies, the Cato Institute, the Foundation for Economic Education (FEE), the International Society for Individual Liberty (ISIL) and the Ludwig von Mises Institute. The activist Free State Project, formed in 2001, works to bring 20,000 libertarians to the state of New Hampshire to influence state policy. Less successful similar projects include the Free West Alliance and Free State Wyoming. Both libertarians and conservatives are prominent in the Tea Party movement.
See also

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