Tag Archives: earth

25 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds on Earth

Puzzling ancient finds have a way of captivating the public, perhaps because it’s just too easy to dream up interesting explanations for how and why things exist.

These 25 archaeological discoveries have left people in awe — and left scientists scratching their heads — year after year.

These seven archaeological discoveries have managed to stay hot topics despite their age, appearing on magazine covers year after year and inspiring new theories for their existence along the way.

Stone spheres

Giant stone spheres — some dating as far back as A.D. 600 — pepper the Diquis Delta of southern Costa Rica. Known locally as Las Bolas (“The Balls”), these monuments were the works of a Pre-Colombian civilization, and most are made from gabbro, a rock that forms from molten magma. The people who carved the stones into their perfectly spherical shapes likely did so using other small stones, according to archaeologists who study the ancient rocks.

Many non-experts have speculated that the so-called Diquis Spheres were used for astronomical purposes, while others think they may have pointed the way to significant places. The truth is that no one knows for sure. The Chibchan people who once populated Costa Rica and other parts of Central America vanished in the wake of the Spanish conquest, and the purpose of the spheres vanished with them, John W. Hoopes, an anthropologist at the University of Kansas, told JSTOR Daily in January 2016.


Antikythera Mechanism

Like something from a fantastical treasure movie, the discovery of the Antikythera Mechanism remains a major archaeological head-scratcher.

Found in the sunken wreckage of a Greek cargo ship that is at least 2,000 years old, the circular bronze artifact contains a maze of interlocking gears and mysterious characters etched all over its exposed faces. Originally thought to be a kind of navigational astrolabe, archaeologists continue to uncover its uses and now know that it was, at the very least, a highly intricate astronomical calendar.

It is still the most sophisticated device ever found from that period, preceding the next appearance of similar devices by 1,000 years.

Cleopatra’s tomb

Cleopatra VII was the last of a series of rulers called the Ptolemies who ruled Egypt between 305 and 30 B.C. Much is known about her intelligence, beauty and romantic relationships (she had children with both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony), but one fact about Cleopatra is still shrouded in mystery — her burial place.

Cleopatra and Antony both committed suicide after their former ally, Octavian, defeated them at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. The two were buried together at a site that the writer Plutarch (A.D. 45-120) described as a “lofty and beautiful” monument, located near a temple of the Egyptian goddess Isis. But exactly where this tomb is located remains a mystery. If anyone ever finds the lovers’ tomb, there’s a chance it might be empty, as grave robbery was not uncommon in ancient times, according to archaeologists.

Qin Shi Huang’s tomb

In 1974, farmers in China’s Shaanxi province accidentally unearthed one of the biggest archaeological finds of the 20th century — the life-size terracotta armyof Emperor Qin Shi Huang (259 B.C. – 210 B.C.).

The intricately carved figures aren’t a mystery: Historians know that the clay army was created to defend China’s first emperor in the afterlife. What isn’t known, however, is where exactly the emperor is buried or what treasures his burial chamber might contain. [See Photos of the Ancient Terracotta Warriors]

A pyramid-shaped mausoleum is located about a mile to the northeast of where the terracotta army was discovered. However, no one has actually entered the mausoleum that holds Qin Shi Huang’s remains.

The first emperor’s final resting place is the most opulent tomb ever constructed in China, according to ancient documents describing its construction. An underground palace, complete with a surrounding “kingdom,” the mausoleum is made up of a network of caves and even included a state-of the-art drainage system. Whether archaeologists will ever have the technology they need to safely excavate the tomb (which also happens to contain extremely high levels of mercury) remains a mystery, as do the many treasures that lay inside.


The lost city of Atlantis has been discovered in the Bahamas, the Greek Islands, Cuba, and even Japan if every claim was to be believed.

First described by the ancient Greek historian Plato in 360 B.C., the mythological island was supposedly a great naval power before sinking into the sea over 10,000 years ago in a catastrophic event.

Archaeologists debate the actual historical existence of the island as well as its most plausible location if it ever actually existed among the many sunken ruins discovered around the world. But even without definitive proof, Atlantis continues to engage the popular imagination like few other archaeological mysteries out there


Extensive Water in Mars Interior

Extensive Water in Mars Interior

Washington, D.C.—Until now, Earth was the only planet known to have vast reservoirs of water in its interior. Scientists analyzed the water content of two Martian meteorites originating from inside the Red Planet. They found that the amount of water in places of the Martian mantle is vastly larger than previous estimates and is similar to that of Earth’s. The results not only affect what we know about the geologic history of Mars, but also have implications for how water got to the Martian surface. The data raise the possibility that Mars could have sustained life.

The research was led by former Carnegie postdoctoral scientist Francis McCubbin, now at the University of New Mexico. The analysis was performed by Carnegie Institution investigator Erik Hauri and team and is published in the journal Geology.

The scientists analyzed what are called shergottite meteorites. These are fairly young meteorites that originated by partial melting of the Martian mantle—the layer under the crust—and crystallized in the shallow subsurface and on the surface. They came to Earth when ejected from Mars approximately 2.5 million years ago. Meteorite geochemistry tells scientists a lot about the geological processes the planet underwent.

“We analyzed two meteorites that had very different processing histories,” explained Hauri. “One had undergone considerable mixing with other elements during its formation, while the other had not. We analyzed the water content of the mineral apatite and found there was little difference between the two even though the chemistry of trace elements was markedly different. The results suggest that water was incorporated during the formation of Mars and that the planet was able to store water in its interior during the planet’s differentiation.”

Based on the mineral’s water content, the scientists estimated that the Martian mantle source from which the rocks were derived contained between 70 and 300 parts per million (ppm) water. For comparison, the upper mantle on Earth contains approximately 50-300 ppm water. Hauri and team were able to determine these values with new techniques and new standards they developed that can quantify water in apatite using a technology called secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

“There has been substantial evidence for the presence of liquid water at the Martian surface for some time,” Hauri said. “So it’s been puzzling why previous estimates for the planet’s interior have been so dry. This new research makes sense and suggests that volcanoes may have been the primary vehicle for getting water to the surface.”

McCubbin concluded, “Not only does this study explain how Mars got its water, it provides a mechanism for hydrogen storage in all the terrestrial planets at the time of their formation.”

This work was supported by NASA Cosmochemistry grants NNX11AG76G, NNX10AI77G, the New Mexico Space Grant Consortium, and the Carnegie Institution.


5 Reasons to Question “Peak Oil” Theory

5 Reasons to Question “Peak Oil” Theory

“Peak Oil”
is the theory that the world is running out of “fossil fuels” whose depletion will turn society on its head. However, there still exist dual theories on the origin of oil, neither of which can yet be fully proven. It is of great importance to weigh both theories and their implications. Special interests, hidden agendas and policy are at stake which could have dire consequences for governments, private interests and individuals if decisions are made based on faulty intelligence.

There also exists the third argument that it is irrelevant whether oil is a “fossil fuel” or “abiotic”, we simply are pumping much faster than the oil wells can renew themselves. This argument tends to be made by “fossil fuel” theorists and those heavily invested in the environmental movement.

“Peak Oil” theory suggests that the world has reached its zenith in terms of extraction and level of oil consumption.

#1 Dmitri Mendeleev Didn’t Buy It

Famous Russian scientist and creator of the periodic table, Dmitri Mendeleev, didn’t buy it. He believed oil to be abiogenic, formed by “non-biological processes deep in the Earth crust and mantle.”

Co-founder of the 1869 Russian Chemical Society, Mendeleev was described as “a chemist of genius, first-class physicist, a fruitful researcher in the fields of hydrodynamics, meteorology, geology, certain branches of chemical technology (explosives, petroleum, and fuels, for example) and other disciplines adjacent to chemistry and physics, a thorough expert of chemical industry and industry in general, and an original thinker in the field of economy.”

Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that oil renews itself somewhere deep in the Earth’s crust.

“It is safe to assume that most elemental gasses rise in to pockets where heat and pressure would allow forming of larger molecules, including hydrocarbons.

Acknowledging this fact is a double dilemma for the ‘environmentalists’ because hydrocarbons then become ‘renewable’ and using petroleum becomes environmentally friendly.

Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev, in the late 19th century proposed that petroleum products could be formed by chemical processes, independent of buried organic biomass. This theory was further expanded by Russian scientists in the 1950’s with their abiogenic theory of natural petroleum production. At the same time that Dr. M. King Hubbert was fashioning his Malthus based “Peak Oil Theory”, claiming pending end of a finite resource.

The Hydrocarbon, Oxygen and Carbon atoms necessary for Earth’s natural Hydrocarbon production are from ‘elemental’ fission production. We are left to guess at what the Earth’s average Hydrocarbon production rate actually is, but it is certain that OIL is a renewable resource. Completely depleted oil fields in the United States have refilled to as much as 1/3 of original capacity.

While Earths Hydrocarbon production does not appear finite in the near term, there is one thing that is FINITE. The Earth only has a finite storage capacity for this daily petroleum production. This is a double blow to the eco-wackos.”

#2 The Totalitarian Technocracy Pushes the Idea of “Fossil Fuels” & “Peak Oil”

August Review think tank founder Patrick Wood has given a much-needed update on the status of humanity’s push toward technocracy. “Peak Oil” theorist Hubbert was a key player in this movement.

“Holding politicians and economists responsible for the debacle of the Great Depression, Technocracy promoted the idea that democracy was a sham and that scientists and engineers should take over the reins of government and impose rationality on the economy.

Technocracy envisioned a no-growth society and the elimination of the price system, to be replaced by the wise administration of the Technocrats. Hubbert believed that a ‘pecuniary’ system, guided by the ‘hieroglyphics’ of economists, was the road to ruin.”

That a totalitarian technocracy pushes “Peak Oil” theory and wants to reposition humanity under serfdom in their neo-feudal system is not something simply to be brushed aside.

#3 Failed Predictions

“As for their physical availability, the recurring and pessimistic ‘Peak Oil’ reports must be taken with the due grain of salt. The recent discoveries of ultra-deep oil deposits off the Brazilian coast, in the Gulf of Mexico and other places, besides the promising development of the technologies for exploring the vast and widespread reserves of shale gas, suggest that the alleged limits to the hydrocarbon production expansion are not yet at sight.

By the same token, the possibility of exploring ultra-deep abiotic hydrocarbons must be considered. Although it is contested by the Western mainstream geosciences thinking, the inorganic formation of hydrocarbons is admitted by Russian and Ukrainian scientists since the mid-20th century and certain non-sedimentary oil deposits have been successfully explored in those countries for decades. Such promising possibilities were reinforced by experimental evidences of hydrocarbon formation in the Earth’s upper mantle, in recent experiments performed in the US and Sweden.

#4 Club of Rome, Depopulation & Faux “Global Warming” Theory

The Club of Rome, responsible for carving the world up into ten regional blocs, seeks to deindustrialize the planet and bring it under their technocratic control based on myths such as overpopulation, CO2 as a pollutant and the discredited theory of man-made global warming.

They put models out depicting limits to growth instilling fear of total societal collapse. They even cited the 1970’s oil shocks as proof of their theory. However, as mentioned below, the oil shocks were a result of deliberate manipulation and no natural occurrence.

They perpetuate the myth of CO2 as a pollutant and voraciously seek to strip humanity of any resource use, having gone so far as to hatefully label humanity as the common enemy upon which we can all unite. They readily admit that their ideas of pollution and global warming were concocted for these purposes!

The essence of the “Global Warming” theory not unlike its augmenting “Peak Oil” hypothesis is deindustrialization and depopulation.

This is why Ugandans and Hondurans are currently being massacred by United Nations and European Union contracted mercenaries as a CO2 sacrifice to the Mother Earth goddess Gaia.

The problem is not overpopulation but the distribution of resources and these same powerful interests are at fault for deliberately preventing this from happening due to their hatred of humanity. Tonnes of food are thrown away daily in developed countries while the Third World dies of starvation.

The Council on Foreign Relations also provided an updated report in addition to the Club of Rome’s called The Global 2000 Report to the President. They state that “basic natural resources–farmlands, fisheries, forests, minerals, energy, air, and water–must be conserved and better managed.” Of course, the technocracy will be the ones to manage our land for us in their neo-feudal society.

#5 A Mode of Societal Control

In 1967 a dozen high-level government officials reportedly met in underground “contingency of government” (COG) mountain bunkers to discuss the ultimate means of social control and world order. This came to be published incidentally as the Report from Iron Mountain and eventually corroborated by collaborator John Galbraith (subsequently refuted by the same).

The report suggested numerous methods of social control. Of course, it was in tune with the 1909 Carnegie Endowment meeting minutes uncovered by Norman Dodd and the Reece Commission, in their investigation of the tax-exempt foundations. In those old minutes, Carnegie suggested war was the ultimate mode of social control and later begged the question on how they could start a war.

The Iron Mountain report suggested the fabrication of alternate enemies such as terrorists to control society (from the Red Scare to the omnipresent Al-Qaeda to now the “Haqqani Network”).

It then went on to suggest fabricating fear via a global environmental threat, with the possibility of selectively increasing the rate of pollution themselves if their lie wasn’t plausible enough. Think geo-engineering and the BP Gulf oil spill.

The report even suggested staging a fake alien invasion to unite humanity. Of course, our present leaders are playing along with this script, from Nobel economist Paul Krugman to the United Nations and Vatican preparations for “alien contact.”

It is interesting to note that a discovery of aliens would again solely target Christianity and no other faith. [Source]

Prominent ufologists such as Jacques Vallee and J. Allen Hynek suggest that UFO’s are extra-dimensional and not extra-terrestrial phenomena.
Pretext for Deindustrialization

The evidence suggests the elites may yet be pulling another one on us. “Peak Oil” clamor largely emanates from the malicious technocracy and discredited “Global Warming” crowds.

Exxon heads themselves have stated the oil barrel price range should be between $60 and $70 based on supply and demand fundamentals sans price manipulation.

This artificial manipulation is stimulated by powerful private interests such as one occurrence in 1973, where such a group (Bilderberg) met and deliberately raised oil prices 400%. It was a fake crisis, but continues to be cited by “Peak Oil” theorists. [Source]

A Saudi Sheikh stated “: ‘I am 100 per cent sure that the Americans were behind the increase in the price of oil. The oil companies were in real trouble at that time, they had borrowed a lot of money and they needed a high oil price to save them.’

He says he was convinced of this by the attitude of the Shah of Iran, who in one crucial day in 1974 moved from the Saudi view, that a hike would be dangerous to Opec because it would alienate the US, to advocating higher prices.

‘King Faisal sent me to the Shah of Iran, who said: ‘Why are you against the increase in the price of oil? That is what they want? Ask Henry Kissinger – he is the one who wants a higher price’.’

Yamani contends that proof of his long-held belief has recently emerged in the minutes of a secret meeting on a Swedish island, where UK and US officials determined to orchestrate a 400 per cent increase in the oil price.” [Source]

The actual report may be accessed here. It also talks of creating an “international federal reserve.”

What if “Peak Oil” need not be a problem? Why fret and clamor for inadequate energy sources such as solar and wind energy? If oil is renewable, why not explore the Russian-Ukrainian theory and attempt to determine the rate of renewability and extract this resource appropriately?

What about all of the other suppressed technologies? Prohibition was largely a ploy by the ruling oil barons and bankers to eliminate alternate sources of fuel, such as alcohol and other various fuel sources. Why can’t we go back to producing engines which make use of these alternate fuels such as alcohol and deal with the current problems surrounding the production of ethanol (which is extremely inefficient)?

Rudolf Diesel’s engine also ran on peanut and vegetable oil. As his patents were being taken away from him as done to Nikola Tesla, Diesel was found floating in the sea.

Collapse may be coming for a variety of reasons, not necessarily because of oil. It may be inevitable given the historic scale of the Ponzi scheme that is called the global economy.

I personally do not even own a car. For those that do, it would be wise to utilize the variety of alternatives that are out there and not be dependent on the technocracy. Water, air, alcohol and vegetable oil fuel cars are already in existence. However, numerous proponents of such independent fuel sources are blackmailed or murdered.

While certain admirable researchers, economists and analysts seem to get one-side of the equation they still cling to the muddy waters of the “Peak Oil” theory, bathed in the eco-fascism of the environmental and technocracy movements.

A recent interview with a person in a position of public influence attests to this. In his body of work, musician Michael Franti notes well the corruption of certain elites through his travels to Iraq and beyond, yet buys into the discredited eco-fascist movement. Incredibly, he even wrote Obama a song. Others such as Dmitry Orlov and Mike Ruppert offer sound and very valuable analysis on a variety of subjects yet promote the “Peak Oil” theory.

I hope the likes question the origins of “Peak Oil” theory and the enviro-fascism that comes with it; the power of having such individuals positioned against the technocracy would make a great difference in the further struggle against totalitarianism.


Superman Renounces U.S. Citizenship in ‘Action Comics’ #900

By: Laura Hudson

Superman Renounces U.S. Citizenship in ‘Action Comics’ #900

After recently undertaking a journey to walk — not fly — across the United States in the “Grounded” storyline and reconnect with the country and everyday Americans, Superman appears to be taking another step that could have major implications for his national identity: in Action Comics #900…

…Superman announces that he is going to give up his U.S. citizenship. Despite very literally being an alien immigrant, Superman has long been seen as a patriotic symbol of “truth, justice, and the American way,” from his embrace of traditional American ideals to the iconic red and blue of his costume. What it means to stand for the “American way” is an increasingly complicated thing, however, both in the real world and in superhero comics, whose storylines have increasingly seemed to mirror current events and deal with moral and political complexities rather than simple black and white morality.

The key scene takes place in “The Incident,” a short story in Action Comics #900 written by David S. Goyer with art by Miguel Sepulveda. In it, Superman consults with the President’s national security advisor, who is incensed that Superman appeared in Tehran to non-violently support the protesters demonstrating against the Iranian regime, no doubt an analogue for the recent real-life protests in the Middle East. However, since Superman is viewed as an American icon in the DC Universe as well as our own, the Iranian government has construed his actions as the will of the American President, and indeed, an act of war.

Superman replies that it was foolish to think that his actions would not reflect politically on the American government, and that he therefore plans to renounce his American citizenship at the United Nations the next day — and to continue working as a superhero from a more global than national perspective. From a “realistic” standpoint it makes sense; it would indeed be impossible for a nigh-omnipotent being ideologically aligned with America to intercede against injustice beyond American borders without creating enormous political fallout for the U.S. government.

While this wouldn’t be this first time a profoundly American comic book icon disassociated himself from his national identity — remember when Captain America became Nomad? — this could be a very significant turning point for Superman if its implications carry over into other storylines. Indeed, simply saying that “truth, justice and the American way [is] not enough anymore” is a pretty startling statement from the one man who has always represented those values the most.

It doesn’t seem that he’s abandoning those values, however, only trying to implement them on a larger scale and divorce himself from the political complexities of nationalism. Superman also says that he believes he has been thinking “too small,” that the world is “too connected” for him to limit himself with a purely national identity. As an alien born on another planet, after all, he “can’t help but see the bigger picture.”

First, a ONE WORLD SUPERMAN….and now a Multi-Ethnic, Racially Diverse, Spiderman?

Do you think the shift to a more global role makes sense for Superman? If he really is going to renounce his U.S. citizenship in order to function as a more international figure, how do you think it will affect the character?

Read More: http://www.comicsalliance.com/2011/04/27/superman-renounces-us-citizenship/#ixzz1KrT9gjEv

Giant whirlpools in Atlantic Ocean puzzle scientists

Pravda is reporting:

US scientists discovered two giant whirlpools in the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Guyana and Suriname. It became a sensational discovery because this part of the ocean has been studied thoroughly, and no one expected anything like that to appear in the area. More importantly, no one can understand where the whirlpools came from and what surprises they may bring to people.

According to Brazilian scientist Guilherme Castellane, the two funnels are approximately 400 kilometers in diameter. Until now, these were not known on Earth. The funnels reportedly exert a strong influence on climate changes that have been registered during the recent years.

“Funnels rotate clockwise. They are moving in the ocean like giant frisbees, two discs thrown into the air. Rotation occurs at a rate of one meter per second, the speed is sufficiently large compared to the speed of oceanic currents, on the border hoppers is a wave-step height of 40 cm,” Castellane said.

Even during the dry months, when the movement of oceanic currents and the flow of the Amazon River practically comes to a standstill, the funnels do not disappear. Therefore, the nature of the funnels does not depend on the flow of water, which one of the world’s biggest rivers brings into the ocean. The natural phenomenon, which creates the whirlpools, is unknown to modern science.

As a matter of fact, the phenomenon of giant whirlpools in the World Ocean is not new to science. In most cases, the craters, or rings, as scientists call them, are formed as a result of so-called vertical currents. The latter, in their turn, appear because of differences in water density which appear because of difference in temperatures of water layers. It is an open secret that cold water is thicker and heavier, so it goes down, underneath the masses of warm water, which is lighter. This is the reason why warm currents in the World Ocean always flow closer to the surface, whereas colder currents flow closer to the bottom.

However, such movement of water may not always depend on the difference of temperatures of the water column. The difference in salinity can also be a reason. The mechanism here is the same. The density of saltier water is higher, this water is heavier and it moves closer to the bottom, pushing less saltier water up. This type of vertical fusion occurs frequently in the tropics because high temperatures lead to the evaporation of water from the surface. The salt does not evaporate with water, though. It stays in the ocean, which raises the level of salinity on the upper layer of water. This layer “drowns” and gives way to less saltier waters of the depth.

Such vertical movements of water create giant whirlpools. The whirlpools, tens and even hundreds of kilometers in diameter, may last for months and even years, scientists say. The vertical movement of waters is a slow process, though. Why do those whirlpools exist for such a long time? This is partially the effect of Earth’s magnetic field. In addition, marine water contains many charged ions, Na and Cl for example. To crown it all, water molecules are dipoles that are charged both positively and negatively.

Any dipole starts spinning when moving in the magnetic field. An oceanic ring gathers millions of billions of molecules together. That is why the giant circle movement triggered by the vertical movement of water may last for months and years mechanically. Ions also give more power to the craters. Natrium and Chlorum are charged as well, and their movement in the magnetic field of the Earth also leads to the appearance of the circle movement.

It is not ruled out that the reason for the appearance of the whirlpools off the coast of South America is the same as in other parts of the World Ocean. Scientists are currently studying the influence of those giant funnels on the climate of Latin America and Africa. Such whirlpools show influence on the atmosphere and form cyclonical air mass. They can also affect the movement of air mass formed in other places. For the time being, scientists do not know how the newly discovered water craters can affect the climate of Central and South Americas.

via Giant ocean whirlpools puzzle scientists – English pravda.ru.


Climate Change is Natural: 100 Reasons why

Climate change is natural: 100 reasons why


HERE are the 100 reasons, released in a dossier issued by the European Foundation, why climate change is natural and not man-made:

1) There is “no real scientific proof” that the current warming is caused by the rise of greenhouse gases from man’s activity.

2) Man-made carbon dioxide emissions throughout human history constitute less than 0.00022 percent of the total naturally emitted from the mantle of the earth during geological history.

3) Warmer periods of the Earth’s history came around 800 years before rises in CO2 levels.

4) After World War II, there was a huge surge in recorded CO2 emissions but global temperatures fell for four decades after 1940.

5) Throughout the Earth’s history, temperatures have often been warmer than now and CO2 levels have often been higher – more than ten times as high.

6) Significant changes in climate have continually occurred throughout geologic time.

7) The 0.7C increase in the average global temperature over the last hundred years is entirely consistent with well-established, long-term, natural climate trends.

8) The IPCC theory is driven by just 60 scientists and favourable reviewers not the 4,000 usually cited.

9) Leaked e-mails from British climate scientists – in a scandal known as “Climate-gate” – suggest that that has been manipulated to exaggerate global warming

10) A large body of scientific research suggests that the sun is responsible for the greater share of climate change during the past hundred years.

11) Politicians and activists claim rising sea levels are a direct cause of global warming but sea levels rates have been increasing steadily since the last ice age 10,000 ago

12) Philip Stott, Emeritus Professor of Biogeography at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London says climate change is too complicated to be caused by just one factor, whether CO2 or clouds

13) Peter Lilley MP said last month that “fewer people in Britain than in any other country believe in the importance of global warming. That is despite the fact that our Government and our political class—predominantly—are more committed to it than their counterparts in any other country in the world”.

14) In pursuit of the global warming rhetoric, wind farms will do very little to nothing to reduce CO2 emissions

15) Professor Plimer, Professor of Geology and Earth Sciences at the University of Adelaide, stated that the idea of taking a single trace gas in the atmosphere, accusing it and finding it guilty of total responsibility for climate change, is an “absurdity”

16) A Harvard University astrophysicist and geophysicist, Willie Soon, said he is “embarrassed and puzzled” by the shallow science in papers that support the proposition that the earth faces a climate crisis caused by global warming.

17) The science of what determines the earth’s temperature is in fact far from settled or understood.

18) Despite activist concerns over CO2 levels, CO2 is a minor greenhouse gas, unlike water vapour which is tied to climate concerns, and which we can’t even pretend to control

19) A petition by scientists trying to tell the world that the political and media portrayal of global warming is false was put forward in the Heidelberg Appeal in 1992. Today, more than 4,000 signatories, including 72 Nobel Prize winners, from 106 countries have signed it.

20) It is claimed the average global temperature increased at a dangerously fast rate in the 20th century but the recent rate of average global temperature rise has been between 1 and 2 degrees C per century – within natural rates

21) Professor Zbigniew Jaworowski, Chairman of the Scientific Council of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw, Poland says the earth’s temperature has more to do with cloud cover and water vapor than CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

22) There is strong evidence from solar studies which suggests that the Earth’s current temperature stasis will be followed by climatic cooling over the next few decades

23) It is myth that receding glaciers are proof of global warming as glaciers have been receding and growing cyclically for many centuries

24) It is a falsehood that the earth’s poles are warming because that is natural variation and while the western Arctic may be getting somewhat warmer we also see that the Eastern Arctic and Greenland are getting colder

25) The IPCC claims climate driven “impacts on biodiversity are significant and of key relevance” but those claims are simply not supported by scientific research

26) The IPCC threat of climate change to the world’s species does not make sense as wild species are at least one million years old, which means they have all been through hundreds of climate cycles

27) Research goes strongly against claims that CO2-induced global warming would cause catastrophic disintegration of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets.

28) Despite activist concerns over CO2 levels, rising CO2 levels are our best hope of raising crop yields to feed an ever-growing population

29) The biggest climate change ever experienced on earth took place around 700 million years ago

30) The slight increase in temperature which has been observed since 1900 is entirely consistent with well-established, long-term natural climate cycles

31) Despite activist concerns over CO2 levels, rising CO2 levels of some so-called “greenhouse gases” may be contributing to higher oxygen levels and global cooling, not warming

32) Accurate satellite, balloon and mountain top observations made over the last three decades have not shown any significant change in the long term rate of increase in global temperatures

33) Today’s CO2 concentration of around 385 ppm is very low compared to most of the earth’s history – we actually live in a carbon-deficient atmosphere

34) It is a myth that CO2 is the most common greenhouse gas because greenhouse gases form about 3% of the atmosphere by volume, and CO2 constitutes about 0.037% of the atmosphere

35) It is a myth that computer models verify that CO2 increases will cause significant global warming because computer models can be made to “verify” anything

36) There is no scientific or statistical evidence whatsoever that global warming will cause more storms and other weather extremes

37) One statement deleted from a UN report in 1996 stated that “none of the studies cited above has shown clear evidence that we can attribute the observed climate changes to increases in greenhouse gases”

38) The world “warmed” by 0.07 +/- 0.07 degrees C from 1999 to 2008, not the 0.20 degrees C expected by the IPCC

39) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change says “it is likely that future tropical cyclones (typhoons and hurricanes) will become more intense” but there has been no increase in the intensity or frequency of tropical cyclones globally

40) Rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere can be shown not only to have a negligible effect on the Earth’s many ecosystems, but in some cases to be a positive help to many organisms

41) Researchers who compare and contrast climate change impact on civilizations found warm periods are beneficial to mankind and cold periods harmful

42) The Met Office asserts we are in the hottest decade since records began but this is precisely what the world should expect if the climate is cyclical

43) Rising CO2 levels increase plant growth and make plants more resistant to drought and pests

44) The historical increase in the air’s CO2 content has improved human nutrition by raising crop yields during the past 150 years

45) The increase of the air’s CO2 content has probably helped lengthen human lifespans since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution

46) The IPCC alleges that “climate change currently contributes to the global burden of disease and premature deaths” but the evidence shows that higher temperatures and rising CO2 levels has helped global populations

47) In May of 2004, the Russian Academy of Sciences published a report concluding that the Kyoto Protocol has no scientific grounding at all.

48) The “Climate-gate” scandal pointed to a expensive public campaign of disinformation and the denigration of scientists who opposed the belief that CO2 emissions were causing climate change

49) The head of Britain’s climate change watchdog has predicted households will need to spend up to £15,000 on a full energy efficiency makeover if the Government is to meet its ambitious targets for cutting carbon emissions.

50) Wind power is unlikely to be the answer to our energy needs. The wind power industry argues that there are “no direct subsidies” but it involves a total subsidy of as much as £60 per MWh which falls directly on electricity consumers. This burden will grow in line with attempts to achieve Wind power targets, according to a recent OFGEM report.

51) Wind farms are not an efficient way to produce energy. The British Wind Energy Association (BWEA) accepts a figure of 75 per cent back-up power is required.

52) Global temperatures are below the low end of IPCC predictions not at “at the top end of IPCC estimates”

53) Climate alarmists have raised the concern over acidification of the oceans but Tom Segalstad from Oslo University in Norway , and others, have noted that the composition of ocean water – including CO2, calcium, and water – can act as a buffering agent in the acidification of the oceans.

54) The UN’s IPCC computer models of human-caused global warming predict the emergence of a “hotspot” in the upper troposphere over the tropics. Former researcher in the Australian Department of Climate Change, David Evans, said there is no evidence of such a hotspot

55) The argument that climate change is a of result of global warming caused by human activity is the argument of flat Earthers.

56) The manner in which US President Barack Obama sidestepped Congress to order emission cuts shows how undemocratic and irrational the entire international decision-making process has become with regards to emission-target setting.

57) William Kininmonth, a former head of the National Climate Centre and a consultant to the World Meteorological Organisation, wrote “the likely extent of global temperature rise from a doubling of CO2 is less than 1C. Such warming is well within the envelope of variation experienced during the past 10,000 years and insignificant in the context of glacial cycles during the past million years, when Earth has been predominantly very cold and covered by extensive ice sheets.”

58) Canada has shown the world targets derived from the existing Kyoto commitments were always unrealistic and did not work for the country.

59) In the lead up to the Copenhagen summit, David Davis MP said of previous climate summits, at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and Kyoto in 1997 that many had promised greater cuts, but “neither happened”, but we are continuing along the same lines.

60) The UK ’s environmental policy has a long-term price tag of about £55 billion, before taking into account the impact on its economic growth.

61) The UN’s panel on climate change warned that Himalayan glaciers could melt to a fifth of current levels by 2035. J. Graham Cogley a professor at Ontario Trent University, claims this inaccurate stating the UN authors got the date from an earlier report wrong by more than 300 years.

62) Under existing Kyoto obligations the EU has attempted to claim success, while actually increasing emissions by 13 per cent, according to Lord Lawson. In addition the EU has pursued this scheme by purchasing “offsets” from countries such as China paying them billions of dollars to destroy atmospheric pollutants, such as CFC-23, which were manufactured purely in order to be destroyed.

63) It is claimed that the average global temperature was relatively unchanging in pre-industrial times but sky-rocketed since 1900, and will increase by several degrees more over the next 100 years according to Penn State University researcher Michael Mann. There is no convincing empirical evidence that past climate was unchanging, nor that 20th century changes in average global temperature were unusual or unnatural.

64) Michael Mann of Penn State University has actually shown that the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age did in fact exist, which contrasts with his earlier work which produced the “hockey stick graph” which showed a constant temperature over the past thousand years or so followed by a recent dramatic upturn.

65) The globe’s current approach to climate change in which major industrialised countries agree to nonsensical targets for their CO2 emissions by a given date, as it has been under the Kyoto system, is very expensive.

66) The “Climate-gate” scandal revealed that a scientific team had emailed one another about using a “trick” for the sake of concealing a “decline” in temperatures when looking at the history of the Earth’s temperature.

67) Global temperatures have not risen in any statistically-significant sense for 15 years and have actually been falling for nine years. The “Climate-gate” scandal revealed a scientific team had expressed dismay at the fact global warming was contrary to their predictions and admitted their inability to explain it was “a travesty”.

68) The IPCC predicts that a warmer planet will lead to more extreme weather, including drought, flooding, storms, snow, and wildfires. But over the last century, during which the IPCC claims the world experienced more rapid warming than any time in the past two millennia, the world did not experience significantly greater trends in any of these extreme weather events.

69) In explaining the average temperature standstill we are currently experiencing, the Met Office Hadley Centre ran a series of computer climate predictions and found in many of the computer runs there were decade-long standstills but none for 15 years – so it expects global warming to resume swiftly.

70) Richard Lindzen, Professor of Atmospheric Sciences at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote: “The notion of a static, unchanging climate is foreign to the history of the Earth or any other planet with a fluid envelope. Such hysteria (over global warming) simply represents the scientific illiteracy of much of the public, the susceptibility of the public to the substitution of repetition for truth.”

71) Despite the 1997 Kyoto Protocol’s status as the flagship of the fight against climate change it has been a failure.

72) The first phase of the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), which ran from 2005 to 2007 was a failure. Huge over-allocation of permits to pollute led to a collapse in the price of carbon from €33 to just €0.20 per tonne meaning the system did not reduce emissions at all.

73) The EU trading scheme, to manage carbon emissions has completely failed and actually allows European businesses to duck out of making their emissions reductions at home by offsetting, which means paying for cuts to be made overseas instead.

74) To date “cap and trade” carbon markets have done almost nothing to reduce emissions.

75) In the United States , the cap-and-trade is an approach designed to control carbon emissions and will impose huge costs upon American citizens via a carbon tax on all goods and services produced in the United States. The average family of four can expect to pay an additional $1700, or £1,043, more each year. It is predicted that the United States will lose more than 2 million jobs as the result of cap-and-trade schemes.

76) Dr Roy Spencer, a principal research scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, has indicated that out of the 21 climate models tracked by the IPCC the differences in warming exhibited by those models is mostly the result of different strengths of positive cloud feedback – and that increasing CO2 is insufficient to explain global-average warming in the last 50 to 100 years.

77) Why should politicians devote our scarce resources in a globally competitive world to a false and ill-defined problem, while ignoring the real problems the entire planet faces, such as: poverty, hunger, disease or terrorism.

94) The European Union has already agreed to cut emissions by 20 percent to 2020, compared with 1990 levels, and is willing to increase the target to 30 percent. However, these are unachievable and the EU has already massively failed with its Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), as EU emissions actually rose by 0.8 percent from 2005 to 2006 and are known to be well above the Kyoto goal.

95) Australia has stated it wants to slash greenhouse emissions by up to 25 percent below 2000 levels by 2020, but the pledges were so unpopular that the country’s Senate has voted against the carbon trading Bill, and the Opposition’s Party leader has now been ousted by a climate change sceptic.

96) Canada plans to reduce emissions by 20 percent compared with 2006 levels by 2020, representing approximately a 3 percent cut from 1990 levels but it simultaneously defends its Alberta tar sands emissions and its record as one of the world’s highest per-capita emissions setters.

97) India plans to reduce the ratio of emissions to production by 20-25 percent compared with 2005 levels by 2020, but all Government officials insist that since India has to grow for its development and poverty alleviation, it has to emit, because the economy is driven by carbon.

98) The Leipzig Declaration in 1996, was signed by 110 scientists who said: “We – along with many of our fellow citizens – are apprehensive about the climate treaty conference scheduled for Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997” and “based on all the evidence available to us, we cannot subscribe to the politically inspired world view that envisages climate catastrophes and calls for hasty actions.”

99) A US Oregon Petition Project stated “We urge the United States government to reject the global warming agreement that was written in Kyoto, Japan in December, 1997, and any other similar proposals. The proposed limits on greenhouse gases would harm the environment, hinder the advance of science and technology, and damage the health and welfare of mankind. There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of CO2, methane, or other greenhouse gasses is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth’s atmosphere and disruption of the Earth’s climate.”

100) A report by the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change concluded “We find no support for the IPCC’s claim that climate observations during the twentieth century are either unprecedented or provide evidence of an anthropogenic effect on climate.”

Read more: http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/146138/146138Climate-change-is-natural-100-reasons-why-#ixzz1HjnXeOsB

NASA Scientist Claims Evidence of Alien Life on Meteorite

By Garrett Tenney

A photograph taken through a scanning electron microscope of a CI1 meteorite (right) is similar in size and overall structure to the giant bacterium Titanospirillum velox (left), an organism found here on planet Earth, a NASA scientist said.

We are not alone in the universe — and alien life forms may have a lot more in common with life on Earth than we had previously thought.

That’s the stunning conclusion one NASA scientist has come to, releasing his groundbreaking revelations in a new study in the March edition of the Journal of Cosmology.

Dr. Richard B. Hoover, an astrobiologist with NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center, has traveled to remote areas in Antarctica, Siberia, and Alaska, amongst others, for over ten years now, collecting and studying meteorites. He gave FoxNews.com early access to the out-of-this-world research, published late Friday evening in the March edition of the Journal of Cosmology. In it, Hoover describes the latest findings in his study of an extremely rare class of meteorites, called CI1 carbonaceous chondrites — only nine such meteorites are known to exist on Earth.

Though it may be hard to swallow, Hoover is convinced that his findings reveal fossil evidence of bacterial life within such meteorites, the remains of living organisms from their parent bodies — comets, moons and other astral bodies. By extension, the findings suggest we are not alone in the universe, he said.

“I interpret it as indicating that life is more broadly distributed than restricted strictly to the planet earth,” Hoover told FoxNews.com. “This field of study has just barely been touched — because quite frankly, a great many scientist would say that this is impossible.”

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In what he calls “a very simple process,” Dr. Hoover fractured the meteorite stones under a sterile environment before examining the freshly broken surface with the standard tools of the scientist: a scanning-electron microscope and a field emission electron-scanning microscope, which allowed him to search the stone’s surface for evidence of fossilized remains.

He found the fossilized remains of micro-organisms not so different from ordinary ones found underfoot — here on earth, that is.

“The exciting thing is that they are in many cases recognizable and can be associated very closely with the generic species here on earth,” Hoover told FoxNews.com. But not all of them. “There are some that are just very strange and don’t look like anything that I’ve been able to identify, and I’ve shown them to many other experts that have also come up stumped.”

Other scientists tell FoxNews.com the implications of this research are shocking, describing the findings variously as profound, very important and extraordinary. But Dr. David Marais, an astrobiologist with NASA’s AMES Research Center, says he’s very cautious about jumping onto the bandwagon.

These kinds of claims have been made before, he noted — and found to be false.

“It’s an extraordinary claim, and thus I’ll need extraordinary evidence,” Marais said.

Knowing that the study will be controversial, the journal invited members of the scientific community to analyze the results and to write critical commentaries ahead of time. Though none are online yet, those comments will be posted alongside the article, said Dr. Rudy Schild, a scientist with the Harvard-Smithsonian’s Center for Astrophysics and the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Cosmology.

“Given the controversial nature of his discovery, we have invited 100 experts and have issued a general invitation to over 5,000 scientists from the scientific community to review the paper and to offer their critical analysis,” Schild wrote in an editor’s note along with the article. “No other paper in the history of science has undergone such a thorough vetting, and never before in the history of science has the scientific community been given the opportunity to critically analyze an important research paper before it is published, he wrote.”

Dr. Seth Shostak, senior astronomer at the SETI Institute, said there is a lot of hesitancy to believe such proclamations. If true, the implications would be far-reaching throughout the fields of science and astronomy, the suggestions and possibilities stunning.

“Maybe life was seeded on earth — it developed on comets for example, and just landed here when these things were hitting the very early Earth,” Shostak speculated. “It would suggest, well, life didn’t really begin on the Earth, it began as the solar system was forming.”

Hesitancy to believe new claims is something common and necessary to the field of science, Hoover said.

“A lot of times it takes a long time before scientists start changing their mind as to what is valid and what is not. I’m sure there will be many many scientists that will be very skeptical and that’s OK.”

Until Hoover’s research can be independently verified, Marais said, the findings should be considered “a potential signature of life.” Scientists, he said, will now take the research to the next level of scrutiny, which includes an independent confirmation of the results by another lab, before the findings can be classified “a confirmed signature of life.”

Hoover says he isn’t worried about the process and is open to any other explanations.

“If someone can explain how it is possible to have a biological remain that has no nitrogen, or nitrogen below the detect ability limits that I have, in a time period as short as 150 years, then I would be very interested in hearing that.”

“I’ve talked with many scientists about this and no one has been able to explain,” he said.

Read more: http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2011/03/05/exclusive-nasa-scientists-claims-evidence-alien-life-meteorite/#ixzz1FsNRo81N

The Great Pyramid at Giza

Jack Kelley – www.gracethrufaith.com

The Great Pyramid’s builder knew all the dimensions of Earth and had a command of engineering, astronomy, and mathematics that would be impressive even today. If this guy didn’t have supernatural capability himself, he was certainly assisted by Someone who does.In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the heart of Egypt, and a monument to the LORD at its border. It will be a sign and witness to the LORD Almighty in the land of Egypt. When they cry out to the LORD because of their oppressors, he will send them a savior and defender, and he will rescue them. (Isaiah 19:19-20)

During a group discussion on the New Jerusalem, a question about its configuration was raised. Revelation 21 only says that it’s 1400 miles square and 1400 miles tall and to me that conjures up an image of a cube. But some see a pyramid, and when you think about it, John could have been describing just that. One thing led to another and pretty soon the subject of the Great Pyramid at Giza in Egypt came up. Someone asked me to conduct a study on it someday and I agreed.

Here goes.

The Great Pyramid
Th Great Pyramid was most likely built in the 22nd century BC. Its construction required 10 years of planning and preparation and then 100,000 men spent 20 years completing it.
It’s different from all the other pyramids in Egypt. For one thing it’s made of stone, not bricks, and is the only one that’s not solid. There’s a series of passageways and several chambers inside. All of the 80 or so other pyramids came later, are grossly inferior copies, and unlike the Great Pyramid were used as gigantic headstones covering the tombs of the Pharaohs. (The Great Pyramid never served as a tomb.)
Since it’s located both on the border between Upper and Lower Egypt (Giza means border in Arabic) and in the heart of the two Egypts, the Great Pyramid seems to be referenced in the Isaiah passage above. And since the context of the Isaiah passage is the End Times, the connection with the New Jerusalem may not be so far fetched after all.

(Originally two separate kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt were joined together to become one. Upper Egypt is in the south and is more mountainous. Lower Egypt in the north was comprised mostly of the Nile delta region and the adjacent plains. The Biblical name for Egypt is Mizraim and literally means 2 Egypts since it’s the dual form of its root, Matzor. Mizraim was a son of Ham whose descendants first settled Egypt.)


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Some Fascinating Details
The Great Pyramid was built on a 13-acre base made level to within less than 1?.   900 million cubic feet of granite blocks were used in its construction. To this day engineers can’t explain how the workers managed to fit those huge blocks together so carefully in building a monument nearly 500 feet high. Some of the larger ones weighed nearly 80 tons.
It originally had a face of polished white limestone consisting of 115,000 stones finished on all six sides to within .01 inch of perfectly straight. Cut on a bevel, they fit together with seams of less than 1/50th of an inch. They were then cemented together and polished to a high sheen. It’s said that the pyramid shone as if made of light itself and could be seen from over a hundred miles away.
The entire structure rests on 4 foundation stones that fit into sockets cut into the bedrock. These stones are designed to compensate for changes in temperature. They keep the pyramid square and level at all times, and in fact it’s square on every course.
It faces due North more accurately than we can position buildings today so that each side faces the four cardinal points of the compass. Its shadow has predicted equinoxes and solstices.
Originally it was to have a solid gold capstone that was a scale model of the pyramid itself. It was never put in place because the builders rejected it. Only on a pyramid can a capstone also be the head of the corner. (Psalm 118:22 and Matt.21:42)

A single entrance on the North side opens into a passageway that slopes down 150 feet to the base where it descends another 200 feet into the bedrock on a line that’s straight to within 1/4 of an inch over its 350 ft. length. The passageway, several chambers and all the air vents were pre-cut into the stones before they were placed and appeared in their finished form as the stones were fit together.

On one day in history the angle of this passageway looking up from the bottom pointed directly at the north star. If you could have drawn a line straight up from the pyramid into the sky on that day you would have intersected the exact center of our galaxy. That day was the vernal equinox in 2141 BC. Such an alignment happens only once every 26,000 years. As we’ll see below, the builders apparently knew this in advance and planned their construction accordingly.
The Great Pyramid was also built exactly in the center of Earth’s land mass. Equal amounts of land are contained in each of the quadrants drawn off its 4 corners. Its height of 454 feet is the same as the average height above sea level of all land on earth.
The sides are concave at the bottom. Their curvature conforms to the curvature of the earth’s surface, so if you could draw a circle extended from any two adjacent corners it would equal the circumference of Earth at the Equator.

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The Sacred cubit was the unit of measure used in building the Great Pyramid. Unlike the standard and royal cubits referenced in the Bible, its length is 25 pyramid inches, which are about the same as the inch used today in the US. These units of measure were carved into the wall, and can serve to decode the pyramid’s dimensions. For instance, multiplying the sacred cubit times 10 million equals the polar radius of earth. Multiplying the total weight of the Pyramid by 1000 trillion equals the weight of planet Earth.
In Hebrew each letter has a numerical value. The Pyramid’s height in inches equals the sum of all the letters in the Hebrew text of Isaiah 19:19-20 (5449). Air shafts keep the temperature inside at exactly 68 degrees, the same as the mean temperature of Earth. If you could walk up the side of the pyramid you’d rise 9 feet in vertical elevation for every 10 feet you cover.
It contains one piece of furniture, a box the same size as the Ark of the Covenant. It’s located in the King’s Chamber, a room with the same cubic volume as the bronze laver in Solomon’s Temple. It’s just barely too big to fit through the passageway, so it had to have been placed there as pyramid was built, over 1000 years before God gave Moses the Ark’s dimensions.
The main passageway descends at an angle of 26 degrees 18 minutes and 9 seconds. This is called the Christ angle because a line drawn from the Pyramid to Bethlehem is 26 degrees 18 minutes and 9 seconds from true north. At the bottom of the entry passageway is a rough hewn chamber called the bottomless pit. Together the passageway and chamber symbolize the fall of man from Adam’s sin, a gradual descent straight into Hell.
Markers carved into the wall in advance are keyed to the vernal equinox in 2141 BC, the only day in history when the stars lined up with the pyramid as described above. Whoever did the carving knew ahead of time that this would happen and designed the lengths of the various passageways to serve as time lines to predict significant future events. For example, the distance from the starting marker to the place where a steep, low ceiling passageway up to the King’s Chamber intersects the down sloping entry passageway foretells the date when the Law was given at Mt. Sinai. It symbolizes the opening of another path for man, this one a difficult climb leading him back to God. Part way up to the King’s chamber another short passageway leads off to another room called the Queen’s chamber. The distance to that passageway converts to the year Jesus was crucified and symbolizes the relief from the hard way of the Law that was purchased at the cross.
So it appears that the Queen’s chamber represents the Church. The Grand Gallery just before the King’s Chamber consists of 7 levels of polished pink granite and symbolizes the Millennium. And the King’s Chamber represents eternity. Pyramid buffs see many other significant dates in Christianity foretold in the lengths of the various passageways and chambers, but so far the date of the 2nd Coming has eluded them.

Who Built The Great Pyramid?
The identity of the architect is unknown, but three candidates come to the top of most lists:
1. Eusibius quotes an Egyptian historian named Manetheo who attributes construction to the Hyksos or Shepherd Kings who came from Arabia, conquered Egypt without a battle, destroyed their pagan temples and converted Egypt to monotheism. They built the Great Pyramid and then left for Judea. Job, after whom a book of the Bible is named, might have been part of this group. A generation later the Egyptians reverted to paganism.
2. Some say Enoch, making the Pyramid a pre-flood monument like the nearby Sphinx. If you measure a side from corner to corner in sacred cubits it equals 365.242, the number of days in our year and Enoch’s age when he was raptured. (Because of their concave nature there are three ways to measure a side. One way equals the solar year, as above. The second way equals the sidereal year, slightly longer at 365.256, and the third equals the anomalistic year of 365.259 days. The last two are used mostly in astronomy. If that isn’t astonishing enough for you, keep in mind that none of these measurements would apply until 1300 years later when the length of the Earth’s orbit increased by 5.25 days.)
3. Most popular is Shem, son of Noah. Though born before the Great Flood, Shem outlived 8 of the first 9 generations that followed it, and even outlived Abraham. Some believe Shem was the priest called Melchizedek in Genesis 14.
No matter which of these options appeals to you, the facts remain that the builder knew all the dimensions of Earth and had a command of engineering, astronomy, and mathematics that would be impressive even today. Think of it. This guy knew the weight and curvature of the Earth, the irregularity of that curvature at the poles, the location and size of every land mass and its height above sea level, Earth’s mean temperature, its latitude and longitude scales, the exact direction of true north, the locations of the stars, and the fact that 1300 years later the Earth’s orbit would change, increasing by 5.24 days.
He knew how to make things absolutely level, straight, and square, and how to pre-cut and position gigantic pieces of stone so that when in place they fit so perfectly that every course is level and square even today. He knew how to calculate the coefficients of expansion and contraction and compensate for them. The list goes on. If this guy didn’t have supernatural capability himself, he was certainly assisted by Someone who does.
Belief By Evidence
Like Noah’s Ark, the Sphinx and others, the Great Pyramid may be evidence for generations yet future to us. It’s obvious supernatural design and construction make it a unique witness to the Glory of God.
In Old Testament times people gained and maintained their belief in God through the evidence of His existence. God caused earthquakes, dried up rivers and seas, made city walls fall down, and sent fire and hail on His enemies. And anyone could come to Jerusalem to witness His presence first hand. Fire from Heaven consumed the sacrifices on the altar. No matter from what direction or with what velocity the wind blew, smoke from the altar always rose straight up into heaven.
According to Jewish tradition, each fall on Yom Kippur the scapegoat was brought before the High Priest and the sins of the nation were transferred to it. While the people watched, a scarlet ribbon was tied from one of the goat’s horns to a door of the Temple. As the goat was led into the wilderness this ribbon was snipped leaving some hanging on the door and some on the goat’s horn. At a designated place the goat was pushed off a cliff to its death. At the moment of the goat’s death the piece of ribbon on the Temple door changed color from scarlet to white fulfilling Isaiah 1:18. “Though your sins are like scarlet, they shall be as white as snow.” All these things were plainly visible, irrefutable evidence of God’s presence.
Belief By Faith
When the Lord Jesus came, all that changed. No more great and fearful events to prove God’s existence. The greatest of all had happened. He had come to dwell among us. Following His death the ribbon never changed colors again.
On Resurrection Sunday He rose from the grave having conquered sin and death. That evening He appeared to His disciples in the Upper Room. Thomas was absent and refused to believe the others. The following Sunday He appeared again and this time Thomas was there. Though the doors were locked, Jesus came and stood among them and said, “Peace be with you!” Then he said to Thomas, “Put your finger here; see my hands. Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubting and believe.”
Thomas said to him, “My Lord and my God!”
Then Jesus told him, “Because you have seen me, you have believed; blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”(John 20:26-29)
Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed. He was speaking of His Church and the incredible blessings that would accrue to our benefit. The age of belief by faith alone had arrived.
Soon the Church will disappear and the Lord told us that as the end approaches, people on Earth will again see much evidence of His existence. It’ll be like Old Testament times again. Obvious miracles, huge natural disasters, uncontrollable weather, until finally the skies will open and like flashes of lightning that are visible from the East to the West, every eye will behold His Glorious Appearing.
During the time leading up to His return, I believe Noah’s Ark will reappear, and the true origins of monuments like Stonehenge, Easter Island and others will become known as evidence of God’s existence. And one day the Great Pyramid will be restored and once again stand in Egypt as the monument and witness to the Lord that Isaiah prophesied, bringing salvation to the people there. When they cry out to the LORD because of their oppressors, he will send them a savior and defender, and he will rescue them. (Isaiah 19:20)
In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. The Assyrians will go to Egypt and the Egyptians to Assyria. The Egyptians and Assyrians will worship together. In that day Israel will be the third, along with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing on the earth. The LORD Almighty will bless them, saying, “Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance.” (Isaiah 19:23-25)

Mysterious markings discovered at Great Pyramid of Giza
By Nuala Calvi, for CNN
May 28, 2011 5:43 a.m. EDT
Markings deep inside the Great Pyramid of Giza could shed light on the monument’s secret chambers and tunnels.
Markings deep inside the Great Pyramid of Giza could shed light on the monument’s secret chambers and tunnels.

Marks found in tiny chamber at the end of a passage date from 4,500 years ago
The painted hieroglyphs and stone markings were filmed using a robot camera
Scholars hope they will explain why the mysterious shafts were built

London, England (CNN) — A robot explorer has revealed ancient markings inside a secret chamber at Egypt’s Great Pyramid of Giza.

The markings, which have lain unseen for 4,500 years, were filmed using a bendy camera small enough to fit through a hole in a stone door at the end of a narrow tunnel.

It is hoped they could shed light on why the tiny chamber and the tunnel — one of several mysterious passages leading from the larger King’s and Queen’s chambers — were originally built.

The markings take the form of hieroglyphic symbols in red paint as well as lines in the stone that may have been made by masons when the chamber was being built.
The big question is the purpose of these tunnels.
–Peter Der Manuelian, Philip J. King Professor of Egyptology at Harvard University

According to Peter Der Manuelian, Philip J. King Professor of Egyptology at Harvard University, similar lines have been found elsewhere in Giza. “Sometimes they identify the work gang (who built the room), sometimes they give a date and sometimes they give guidelines to mark cuttings or directional symbols about the beginning or end of a block,” he said.

“The big question is the purpose of these tunnels,”
he added. “There are architectural explanations, symbolic explanations, religious explanations — even ones relating to the alignment of the stars — but the final word on them is yet to be written. The challenge is that no human can fit inside these channels so the only way to do this exploration is with robots.”

Pictures of the markings have been published in the Annales du Service Des Antiquities de l’Egypte, the official publication of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, following an international mission led by the Minister for Antiquities.

The robot explorer that took the images is named Djedi, after the magician whom Pharaoh Khufu consulted when planning the layout of the Great Pyramid. It was designed and built by engineers at the University of Leeds, in collaboration with Scoutek UK and Dassault Systemes, France.

Although robots have previously sent back pictures from within the pyramid’s tunnels, Djedi’s creators say it is the first to be able to explore the walls and floors in detail, rather than just take pictures looking straight ahead, thanks to a “micro snake” camera.

The camera also scrutinized two copper pins embedded in the door to the chamber at the end of the tunnel. In a statement, Shaun Whitehead, of Scoutek UK, said: “People have been wondering about the purpose of these pins for over 20 years. It had been suggested that they were handles, keys or even parts of an electrical power plant, but our new pictures from behind the pins cast doubt on these theories.

“We now know that these pins end in small, beautifully made loops, indicating that they were more likely ornamental rather than electrical connections or structural features. Also, the back of the door is polished so it must have been important. It doesn’t look like it was a rough piece of stone used to stop debris getting into the shaft.”

The team’s next task is to look at the chamber’s far wall to check whether it is a solid block of stone or another door.

“We are keeping an open mind and will carry out whatever investigations are needed to work out what these shafts and doors are for,”
said Whitehead. “It is like a detective story, we are using the Djedi robot and its tools to piece the evidence together.”