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The Blueprint for WWIII

The Blueprint for WWIII

by Dave Hodges – thecommonsenseshow.com
– Conspiracy, Featured, Main
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denialMy next set of articles are not for the faint of heart. If you desire to keep on burying your head in the sand, then go watch the NFL Draft. Of course, if we do not collectively wake up the majority of sheep which inhabit this country and motivate them to action against the globalists, the acronym “NFL” will soon come to mean Not For Long. And “Not For Long” will soon represent how long the sheeple of this country can keep their heads buried in the sand as the country disintegrates into total chaos. No amount of cognitive dissonance, normalcy bias and general apathy can protect even the most unaware of Americans as to what lies in their immediate future. The solvency of the Federal Reserve is being threatened and to understand the roots of the coming world war and the roll out of tyrannical martial law, over this issue, I need to take a brief look at the historical underpinnings.
The Birth of the Petrodollar

A novel system for monetary and exchange rates were established in 1944. The Bretton Woods Agreement was developed at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, from July 1-22, 1944. This conference established the US dollar as the reserve currency of the world.

The Banksters (e.g. Rockefellers’) reveled in their new found fortune. As a result of the Bretton Woods Conference, all nations desiring to purchase Middle East oil had to first purchase dollars and use these dollars to complete the purchase of oil.

Nearly everyone inside of our country benefited from this system. Americans basically enjoyed a stable currency minus the inflation rates of about 5% per year which served as an informal tax that went into the Federal Reserve banksters’ pockets. Thus, the Petrodollar was born. If the Petrodollar were to ever be successfully undermined, our currency would sink faster than a submarine with screen doors because there is nothing backing up our money.

The old guard at the Federal Reserve worked from 1910 to 1971 to rid the economy of the Gold Standard so that they could enforce debt slavery upon the American people and government through encouraging a prolonged out of control spending spree accompanied by the awarding of lucrative unbid contracts to the elite’s corporations which would dramatically drive up the deficit and line the pockets of the Federal Reserve owners.

The coming war with Syria is merely the opening act. The main act, following Syrian subjugation, will consist of the United States and Israel and perhaps England attacking Iran. Iran is the prize needed for the old guard of the Federal Reserve to maintain its strangle hold on the global economy. On the surface, attacking Iran seems like a good idea if it will preserve our economy. However, the risks associated with this course of action are astronomical.
Why Every American Should Fixate On This Issue

starvationThe Petrodollar is in real trouble and so is your bank account, your job, your ability to get gas, medicine, food and water. America is literally a push button away from the total calamity that we see in the NBC show, Revolution. In many eyes, the Petrodollar must be maintained at all costs.
On the Precipice of WWIII

Syria is the first real domino in the coming conflict that threatens all life on this planet. The take down of Egypt and Libya was mere foreplay. The real action will commence in a few months with the invasion of Syria and the excuse will be to save humanity from Syria’s weapons of mass destruction, namely, chemical weapons. Hmmm, isn’t there a DHS chemical weapons attack drill planned for either Denver or Portsmouth next month? But I digress, this issue will be fully exposed in a subsequent complementary article in this series.

Make no mistake about it, America is headed towards war with Syria and don’t think for a second that this war will imitate, in any way, the wars in Iraq and in Afghanistan. The previous wars compared to Syria, and later with Iran, is child’s play compared to anything we have been involved with in the history of this nation. The “saving the Petrodollar” strategy being pursued by the Federal Reserve is a high stakes gamble with you, your children and the future of humanity being used as their collateral.

Proof that the coming war is imminent is evidenced by the accusations being currently made by the US government that Syria is using chemical weapons against the rebels. In this fabrication of the Syrian version of the Boston Marathon bombing false flag event, it is likely that if there are chemical weapons in play, the CIA is the responsible party. Why? Because all roads to Tehran run through Damascus. Iran is the actual target of the Federal Reserve’s war intentions, because Iran is doing the unthinkable as it is waging war on the old guard of the New World Order, by selling its oil to Russia, China and India for gold and this is a dire threat to the solvency of the dollar.
First Syria, Then Iran

map of syria and iranBefore one can invade Iran, with the threat of Russian intervention looming, Syria must first be occupied and fortified by US/NATO forces. Occupying Syria allows America and her allies to invade Iran from several directions. Through Syria, we will see airstrikes which will fly unimpeded over Northern Iraq. Also, and most importantly, the occupation of Syria will be a threat to the mobilization of forces inside of Russia who would then come under the American long and short range missile batteries, which will be installed in Syria. These missiles will surely be armed with battlefield nuclear warheads. This deterrent could provide the Americans with enough time to occupy most of Iran before Russia or China could act with its conventional forces. This strategy, however, dares the Chinese and Russians to not invoke the use of large scale nuclear weapons in the biggest game of chicken ever played on this planet.
The Unexpected Twists and Turns of the Coming World War

I do not expect China to attack the US in the Middle East, at least not at first. I expect the Chinese to move on Taiwan and let the North Koreans launch its nuclear missiles against Japan. It is possible that Russia might further invade the US through Alaska.

fear aheadI never thought that elements of the Red Dawn scenario would ever come to fruition, but how many times have we seen the media tell us what is going to transpire in advance of an event? And while we are at it, I would anticipate that China would approach the Southwestern underbelly of the United States via Central America, given that the Chinese control the Panama Canal and are rumored to have troops throughout Central America, including Mexico. And if things really go crazy, all sides may launch its ICBM missiles and their submarine based nuclear missiles at each others homeland and then all bets are off. Perhaps, you now know why I constantly refer these criminal banksters who have hijacked our government as psychopathic.
Iran Is Public Enemy Number One

Because of Iran’s threat to the Petrodollar, Iran occupies a similar, but much more dangerous position than did Iraq in 2001. As we now all know, 9/11 provided the motivation to invade Iraq. No, Iraq was not responsible for the 9/11 attacks and President Bush did admit as much. But that did not prevent Bush from capitalizing on the emotion from 9/11 so that America would confuse the issues and tacitly accept the invasion of Iraq in which the Iraqi’s were lumped together with all Middle Eastern nations who “want to kill us because of our freedoms.”

petrodollarSpecifically, why did Iraq have to be invaded? Simple, Saddam Hussein was attempting to sell his oil in currency other than Federal Reserve Notes (i.e. the Euro). He was threatening the Federal Reserve and at that time, he was also a threat to the central bankers in their headquarters, otherwise known as the Bank of International Settlements, which controls all central banking. During that time frame, these banksters would have done anything at that time to prevent a threat to the world’s reserve currency, namely the dollar, which they controlled.

Following the completion of the second Iraq war, Exxon and BP controlled 80% of Iraqi oil fields and nobody would be selling Iraqi oil in either the Euro or for gold. However, the game has changed, Iran has replaced Iraq as the major threat to the stability of the Federal Reserve Notes.

Iran is economically destroying the US. Unfortunately for every man, woman and child in America, that day of economic reckoning is quickly approaching. China has commenced buying Iranian oil in gold. India has followed suit, as have the Russians. The days of the Petrodollar are numbered and therefore, so is the only source of backing of our dollar. Have you and your family prepared for the collapse of the dollar and ultimately the collapse of society? It is coming and it coming fast.
The Russians and the Chinese Have Warned the US
President Hu

President Hu

Creating the pretext for fighting a war, and then successfully selling the American public on the need to fight the war, is one thing. However, winning the war, is quite another. How serious are the Chinese and Russians at standing up to the imperialistic United States? Considering that both Chinese President Hu and Major General Zhang Zhaozhong have threatened the United States with nuclear war if they invade Iran, the prudent opinion says that this is the newest version of the “Axis of Evil’s” line in the sand, has been clearly drawn.
The Dawn of the American Empire

America is in a very difficult dilemma. If we acquiesce to the Russian and Chinese threat of war for invading Iran, our dollar will collapse. If we attack Iran after taking over Syria, the nuclear powers with formidable armies have promised retaliation. America could see its first invasion on American soil since the War of 1812.

It is possible that the Americans will only invade Syria in a game of brinksmanship with the Russians and the Chinese, in order to test their resolve (e.g. a game of military chicken). However, I don’t think that is likely. The Federal Reserve will not back down. They have already killed Gaddafi and Hussein in order to preserve the Petrodollar. They are not going to back down to the Iranians, Chinese and Russians because it will not be their children doing the fighting and dying, it will be our children. Now, does it make sense on why the elite are driving down the price of Gold so they can buy up as much as they can for as cheaply as they can? They intend to be the last men standing at the end of the next great war to end all wars.

And just how will the elite sell us on war? You can bet there will be more false flag events, with each one being more horrific than the previous one. And guess who will get the blame? It does not take a rocket scientist to accurately speculate that the last of the false flag events will be nuclear and then all hell will break loose.
Conclusion

It is clear, it is hands off Iran or it means WWIII. Does anyone really think that the Federal Reserve is going to take this lying down? Could the path to WWIII be the reason that so many bankers have left the United States because they know what is coming?

police brutality 6

How do the false flag events tie into this? One hint I will offer is that once you understand the globalist objectives, the Boston Marathon bombing and the aftermath of martial law will make a lot of sense. What will the accompanying martial law look like in this country? The last question is the easiest to answer, because the government has left a trail of documents which details how martial law will enforced and it is frightening. In the next several installments in this series, I will answer all of these questions and perhaps a little bit more.

Will the Real Zombies Please Stand Up?

Will the Real Zombies Please Stand Up?

by Dave Hodges – thecommonsenseshow.com

Zombies are currently all the rage. Between movies, books, games, television shows, and other media the concept of a zombie apocalypse is very popular. And before you accuse yours truly of totally losing his mind, you should note the accompanying picture is brought to you courtesy of the CDC.

Also, when I read that Russia was testing a beam weapon, which was introduced by Russian defense minister Anatoly Serdyukov that could fight back against a zombie attack, I wondered if I had missed something in my undergraduate Zoology class.

The Australia’s Herald Sun reports that this Russian weapon could transform humans into Zombies. I began to wonder if there really is something to the rumors coming out of both the mainstream media (MSM) about the plausibility of something transforming humans into zombies, which would, in-turn, terrorize humanity.

In October of 2012, Navy special-operations forces, along with the Marines, took part in a DHS drill on an island off the coast of San Diego. The entire drill was based upon a zombie invasion. This drill was not a parody as the exercise was also attended by former CIA director Michael Hayden.

Let me be clear on this point, DHS director, Janet Napolitano is not secretly concerned that the undead will soon overrun the human population. Instead, the agency said it wanted to make a serious counter-terrorism training exercise more fun. ABC news reported the event as an example of wasteful spending. In fact, Senator Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) told ABC News that DHS also spent “$30,000 on an underwater robot for Columbus, Ohio, $240,000 for a armored personnel carrier to protect New Hampshire’s annual pumpkin festival and $69,000 for a hovercraft in Indianapolis.” Wasteful spending, more fun? What a great way to hide what DHS is truly up to.

And just when it could not get an weirder, it is now reported that FEMA will hold a Zombie Apocalypse/Alien Invasion drill in Moscow, Idaho on April 27th, from 9 am to 5 pm with 100 participating actors. DHS scrubbed the notice of the drill from its website. However, the drill is still a go as evidenced by the fact that the County Coordinator, Sandi Rollins, for the Moscow, ID. area is listed as being the local person in charge of the drill. Here is Ms. Rollins’ contact information

County Coordinator
Latah County
PO Box 8068
Moscow, ID 83843 [email protected] 209-883-2265

The National Geographic Channel Popularizes the “Zombie Threat”

The National Geographic Channel produced a docudrama entitled The Truth Behind Zombies. The threat from Zombies begins as an outbreak in which humans exhibit an extreme level of violence, entranced states as they plunge into absolute madness. Within days, the epidemic spreads and humanity is griped with fear. The show speculates that there is something behind the zombie myth. The show then proceeds to speculate on whether a mutated virus could create a vast army of Zombies and the producers go so far as to teach viewers how to survive such a threat.

Before running for the hills, it might be useful to recall that National Geographic has always been a CIA enterprise. And it is interesting that this show surfaced in proximity to the Zombie drills sponsored by DHS.

Against all common sense, I began to wonder if there could really be something to the legends of Zombies and if DHS actually knew something that we did not about this potential threat. Being a researcher, I began to systematically examine each and every instance of the reports of threatening Zombies using the principle known as Occam’s Razor which states that the simplest answer is most often correct answer.

The Russian Zombie Death Ray Gun

Upon closer examination, the alleged Russian inspired Zombie creating death ray is no more than a crowd control device capable of inflicting massive pain and mind-control. The hordes of newly created Russian Zombies were no more than dissidents who needed to brought under control. And the Russian weapon is similar to the “microwave heater” used by the US government for the same purpose. Although the Zombie producing ray gun is a myth, the fact that the device is a crowd control device is highly significant. Perhaps the Russian version of the DHS is also accumulating billions of rounds of ammunition in order to use it against the Russian people.
DHS Zombie Defense Drills

When we strip away the Zombie hype in the media, the Zombie preparation drill in October of last year, according to the videotape evidence, is no more than a glorified target practice session designed to practice shootinh humans.

Below is a two minute clip of the Zombie preparedness drills sponsored by DHS.

It is very difficult for anyone, who is not dumber than a box of rocks, to find the real threat posed by Zombies in this video. It was difficult to hold back the laughter as I watched this video. However, the important thing to remember about this exercise is that the targets were human and they were unarmed and this is no laughing matter.
DHS Training Exercises and Manuals

When one considers the leaked US Army Military Police training manual, which details how military assets are to be used to stop acts of civil disobedience, to confiscate firearms and to even murder Americans on American soil and these documents are further characterizing Americans as enemies of the state who are “suspicious of centralized federal authority.” Christians who believe the Bible is the literal word of God.are also the enemy of DHS.

dhsWhat the hell is DHS up to? Who are the real Zombies? This is a very reasonable question to ask especially with DHS purchasing billions of rounds of ammunition, placing orders for 2700 armored personnel carriers and placing solicitations for 7,000 fully automatic rifles, one should become very suspicious as to the true motives of DHS.
Who Could Ever Forget?

sDo you remember when the DHS got caught using the images of these people as target practice? I have concluded that the pregnant woman is a Zombie as is the little boy and the elderly lady. And just like the Zombies in San Diego and soon to be in Moscow, Idaho, DHS has simply replaced the term domestic terrorist with the term Zombie. Why?

America, YOU Are the Zombies

A mythical Zombie invasion is a politically correct way to practice shooting American citizens in a civilian uprising. Can you imagine the outcry if it were discovered that our military, DHS forces and foreign assets were practicing for civilian uprisings by murdering unarmed civilians in the street? This would serve to awaken a lot of the sheep that mistakenly believes that DHS was actually put in play to protect you from al Qaeda. Also, when you train your troops to be shooting at zombies, it dehumanizes the target and desensitizes the act, thus, making it easier to pull the trigger for American soldiers when they are called upon to fire upon American citizens.

Conclusion

The battle lines have been drawn. Yet, most Americans are still unaware that they are about to the most hunted prey on the planet. Field Marshall Napolitano, on behalf of the globalists, has declared most Americans to be enemies of the illegitimate state.

When you go to bed tonight, instead of counting sheep, instead, maybe you should think about waking up a few of the sheep before you are living through a perpetual globalist nightmare.
SOURCE

The GM genocide: Hundreds of Thousands of Indian farmers are committing suicide after using genetically modified crops

The GM genocide: Thousands of Indian farmers are committing suicide after using genetically modified crops

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By Andrew Malone

When Prince Charles claimed thousands of Indian farmers were killing themselves after using GM crops, he was branded a scaremonger. In fact, as this chilling dispatch reveals, it’s even WORSE than he feared.

The children were inconsolable. Mute with shock and fighting back tears, they huddled beside their mother as friends and neighbours prepared their father’s body for cremation on a blazing bonfire built on the cracked, barren fields near their home.

As flames consumed the corpse, Ganjanan, 12, and Kalpana, 14, faced a grim future. While Shankara Mandaukar had hoped his son and daughter would have a better life under India’s economic boom, they now face working as slave labour for a few pence a day. Landless and homeless, they will be the lowest of the low.

Shankara, respected farmer, loving husband and father, had taken his own life. Less than 24 hours earlier, facing the loss of his land due to debt, he drank a cupful of chemical insecticide.

Unable to pay back the equivalent of two years’ earnings, he was in despair. He could see no way out.

There were still marks in the dust where he had writhed in agony. Other villagers looked on – they knew from experience that any intervention was pointless – as he lay doubled up on the ground, crying out in pain and vomiting.

Moaning, he crawled on to a bench outside his simple home 100 miles from Nagpur in central India. An hour later, he stopped making any noise. Then he stopped breathing. At 5pm on Sunday, the life of Shankara Mandaukar came to an end.

As neighbours gathered to pray outside the family home, Nirmala Mandaukar, 50, told how she rushed back from the fields to find her husband dead. ‘He was a loving and caring man,’ she said, weeping quietly.

‘But he couldn’t take any more. The mental anguish was too much. We have lost everything.’

Shankara’s crop had failed – twice. Of course, famine and pestilence are part of India’s ancient story.

But the death of this respected farmer has been blamed on something far more modern and sinister: genetically modified crops.

Shankara, like millions of other Indian farmers, had been promised previously unheard of harvests and income if he switched from farming with traditional seeds to planting GM seeds instead.

Beguiled by the promise of future riches, he borrowed money in order to buy the GM seeds. But when the harvests failed, he was left with spiralling debts – and no income.

So Shankara became one of an estimated 125,000 farmers to take their own life as a result of the ruthless drive to use India as a testing ground for genetically modified crops.

The crisis, branded the ‘GM Genocide’ by campaigners, was highlighted recently when Prince Charles claimed that the issue of GM had become a ‘global moral question’ – and the time had come to end its unstoppable march.

Speaking by video link to a conference in the Indian capital, Delhi, he infuriated bio-tech leaders and some politicians by condemning ‘the truly appalling and tragic rate of small farmer suicides in India, stemming… from the failure of many GM crop varieties’.

Ranged against the Prince are powerful GM lobbyists and prominent politicians, who claim that genetically modified crops have transformed Indian agriculture, providing greater yields than ever before.

The rest of the world, they insist, should embrace ‘the future’ and follow suit.

So who is telling the truth? To find out, I travelled to the ‘suicide belt’ in Maharashtra state.

What I found was deeply disturbing – and has profound implications for countries, including Britain, debating whether to allow the planting of seeds manipulated by scientists to circumvent the laws of nature.

For official figures from the Indian Ministry of Agriculture do indeed confirm that in a huge humanitarian crisis, more than 1,000 farmers kill themselves here each month.

Simple, rural people, they are dying slow, agonising deaths. Most swallow insecticide – a pricey substance they were promised they would not need when they were coerced into growing expensive GM crops.

It seems that many are massively in debt to local money-lenders, having over-borrowed to purchase GM seed.

Pro-GM experts claim that it is rural poverty, alcoholism, drought and ‘agrarian distress’ that is the real reason for the horrific toll.

But, as I discovered during a four-day journey through the epicentre of the disaster, that is not the full story.
Monsanto

Death seeds: A Greenpeace protester sprays milk-based paint on a Monsanto research soybean field near Atlantic, Iowa

In one small village I visited, 18 farmers had committed suicide after being sucked into GM debts. In some cases, women have taken over farms from their dead husbands – only to kill themselves as well.

Latta Ramesh, 38, drank insecticide after her crops failed – two years after her husband disappeared when the GM debts became too much.

She left her ten-year-old son, Rashan, in the care of relatives. ‘He cries when he thinks of his mother,’ said the dead woman’s aunt, sitting listlessly in shade near the fields.

Village after village, families told how they had fallen into debt after being persuaded to buy GM seeds instead of traditional cotton seeds.

The price difference is staggering: £10 for 100 grams of GM seed, compared with less than £10 for 1,000 times more traditional seeds.

But GM salesmen and government officials had promised farmers that these were ‘magic seeds’ – with better crops that would be free from parasites and insects.

Indeed, in a bid to promote the uptake of GM seeds, traditional varieties were banned from many government seed banks.

The authorities had a vested interest in promoting this new biotechnology. Desperate to escape the grinding poverty of the post-independence years, the Indian government had agreed to allow new bio-tech giants, such as the U.S. market-leader Monsanto, to sell their new seed creations.

In return for allowing western companies access to the second most populated country in the world, with more than one billion people, India was granted International Monetary Fund loans in the Eighties and Nineties, helping to launch an economic revolution.

But while cities such as Mumbai and Delhi have boomed, the farmers’ lives have slid back into the dark ages.

Though areas of India planted with GM seeds have doubled in two years – up to 17 million acres – many famers have found there is a terrible price to be paid.

Far from being ‘magic seeds’, GM pest-proof ‘breeds’ of cotton have been devastated by bollworms, a voracious parasite.

Nor were the farmers told that these seeds require double the amount of water. This has proved a matter of life and death.

With rains failing for the past two years, many GM crops have simply withered and died, leaving the farmers with crippling debts and no means of paying them off.

Having taken loans from traditional money lenders at extortionate rates, hundreds of thousands of small farmers have faced losing their land as the expensive seeds fail, while those who could struggle on faced a fresh crisis.

When crops failed in the past, farmers could still save seeds and replant them the following year.

But with GM seeds they cannot do this. That’s because GM seeds contain so- called ‘terminator technology’, meaning that they have been genetically modified so that the resulting crops do not produce viable seeds of their own.

As a result, farmers have to buy new seeds each year at the same punitive prices. For some, that means the difference between life and death.

Take the case of Suresh Bhalasa, another farmer who was cremated this week, leaving a wife and two children.

As night fell after the ceremony, and neighbours squatted outside while sacred cows were brought in from the fields, his family had no doubt that their troubles stemmed from the moment they were encouraged to buy BT Cotton, a geneticallymodified plant created by Monsanto.

‘We are ruined now,’ said the dead man’s 38-year-old wife. ‘We bought 100 grams of BT Cotton. Our crop failed twice. My husband had become depressed. He went out to his field, lay down in the cotton and swallowed insecticide.’

Villagers bundled him into a rickshaw and headed to hospital along rutted farm roads. ‘He cried out that he had taken the insecticide and he was sorry,’ she said, as her family and neighbours crowded into her home to pay their respects. ‘He was dead by the time they got to hospital.’

Asked if the dead man was a ‘drunkard’ or suffered from other ‘social problems’, as alleged by pro-GM officials, the quiet, dignified gathering erupted in anger. ‘No! No!’ one of the dead man’s brothers exclaimed. ‘Suresh was a good man. He sent his children to school and paid his taxes.

‘He was strangled by these magic seeds. They sell us the seeds, saying they will not need expensive pesticides but they do. We have to buy the same seeds from the same company every year. It is killing us. Please tell the world what is happening here.’

Monsanto has admitted that soaring debt was a ‘factor in this tragedy’. But pointing out that cotton production had doubled in the past seven years, a spokesman added that there are other reasons for the recent crisis, such as ‘untimely rain’ or drought, and pointed out that suicides have always been part of rural Indian life.

Officials also point to surveys saying the majority of Indian farmers want GM seeds – no doubt encouraged to do so by aggressive marketing tactics.

During the course of my inquiries in Maharastra, I encountered three ‘independent’ surveyors scouring villages for information about suicides. They insisted that GM seeds were only 50 per cent more expensive – and then later admitted the difference was 1,000 per cent.

(A Monsanto spokesman later insisted their seed is ‘only double’ the price of ‘official’ non-GM seed – but admitted that the difference can be vast if cheaper traditional seeds are sold by ‘unscrupulous’ merchants, who often also sell ‘fake’ GM seeds which are prone to disease.)

With rumours of imminent government compensation to stem the wave of deaths, many farmers said they were desperate for any form of assistance. ‘We just want to escape from our problems,’ one said. ‘We just want help to stop any more of us dying.’

Prince Charles is so distressed by the plight of the suicide farmers that he is setting up a charity, the Bhumi Vardaan Foundation, to help those affected and promote organic Indian crops instead of GM.

India’s farmers are also starting to fight back. As well as taking GM seed distributors hostage and staging mass protests, one state government is taking legal action against Monsanto for the exorbitant costs of GM seeds.

This came too late for Shankara Mandauker, who was 80,000 rupees (about £1,000) in debt when he took his own life. ‘I told him that we can survive,’ his widow said, her children still by her side as darkness fell. ‘I told him we could find a way out. He just said it was better to die.’

But the debt does not die with her husband: unless she can find a way of paying it off, she will not be able to afford the children’s schooling. They will lose their land, joining the hordes seen begging in their thousands by the roadside throughout this vast, chaotic country.

Cruelly, it’s the young who are suffering most from the ‘GM Genocide’ – the very generation supposed to be lifted out of a life of hardship and misery by these ‘magic seeds’.

Here in the suicide belt of India, the cost of the genetically modified future is murderously high.

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Abortion Law, History & Religion


Abortion Law, History & Religion

Abortion Has Always Been With Us

In 1955, the anthropologist George Devereux demonstrated that abortion has been practised in almost all human communities from the earliest times.1 The patterns of abortion use, in hundreds of societies around the world since before recorded history, have been strikingly similar. Women faced with unwanted pregnancies have turned to abortion, regardless of religious or legal sanction and often at considerable risk.2 Used to deal with upheavals in personal, family, and community life, abortion has been called “a fundamental aspect of human behaviour”.

In primitive tribal societies, abortions were induced by using poisonous herbs, sharp sticks, or by sheer pressure on the abdomen until vaginal bleeding occurred. Abortion techniques are described in the oldest known medical texts.2 The ancient Chinese and Egyptians had their methods and recipes to cause abortion, and Greek and Roman civilizations considered abortion an integral part of maintaining a stable population. Ancient instruments, such as the ones found at Pompeii and Herculaneum, were much like modern surgical instruments. The Greeks and Romans also had various poisons administered in various ways, including through tampons.

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were all known to suggest abortion. Even Hippocrates, who spoke against abortion because he feared injury to the woman, recommended it on occasion by prescribing violent exercises. Roman morality placed no social stigma on abortion.

Early Christians condemned abortion, but did not view the termination of a pregnancy to be an abortion before “ensoulment”, the definition of when life began in the womb. Up to 400 AD., as the relatively few Christians were widely scattered geographically, the actual practice of abortion among Christians probably varied considerably and was influenced by regional customs and practices.




Evolving Position of the Christian Church

St. Augustine (AD 354-430) said, “There cannot yet be said to be a live soul in a body that lacks sensation”, and held that abortion required penance only for the sexual aspect of the sin.6 He and other early Christian theologians believed, as had Aristotle centuries before, that “animation”, or the coming alive of the fetus, occurred forty days after conception for a boy and eighty days after conception for a girl. The conclusion that early abortion is not homicide is contained in the first authoritative collection of canon law accepted by the church in 1140.6 As this collection was used as an instruction manual for priests until the new Code of Canon Law of 1917, its view of abortion has had great influence.

At the beginning of the 13th century, Pope Innocent III wrote that “quickening” —the time when a woman first feels the fetus move within her— was the moment at which abortion became homicide; prior to quickening, abortion was a less serious sin. Pope Gregory XIV agreed, designating quickening as occurring after a period of 116 days (about 17 weeks). His declaration in 1591 that early abortion was not grounds for excommunication continued to be the abortion policy of the Catholic Church until 1869.

The tolerant approach to abortion which had prevailed in the Roman Catholic Church for centuries ended at the end of the nineteenth century.7 In 1869, Pope Pius IX officially eliminated the Catholic distinction between an animated and a nonanimated fetus and required excommunication for abortions at any stage of pregnancy.

This change has been seen by some as a means of countering the rising birth control movement, especially in France,8 with its declining Catholic population. In Italy, during the years 1848 to 1870, the papal states shrank from almost one-third of the country to what is now Vatican City. It has been argued that the Pope’s restriction on abortion was motivated by a need to strengthen the Church’s spiritual control over its followers in the face of this declining political power.

Early Legal Opinion

Historically, religious beliefs coloured legal opinion on abortion. From 1307 to 1803, abortion before the fetus moved perceptibly or “quickened” was not punished under English common law, and not regarded by society at large as a moral problem.9 Because most abortions took place before quickening, punishment was rare. Even if performed after quickening, the offense was usually considered a misdemeanour. This was the case until the nineteenth century; the entry of the state into the regulation of abortion has been relatively recent.

Two prominent legal cases from fourteenth century England illustrate prevailing practices at that time. In both the “Twinslayer’s Case” of 1327 and the “Abortionist’s Case” of 1348, the judges refused to make causing the death of a fetus a legal offence. The judges were, in this pre-Reformation period, all Roman Catholic.

In 1670, the question of whether or not abortion was murder came before the English judge, Sir Matthew Hale. Hale decided that if a woman died as a result of an abortion then the abortionist was guilty of murder. No mention was made of the fetus.

This tolerant common-law approach ended in 1803 when a criminal abortion law was codified by Lord Ellenborough. The abortion of a “quick” fetus became a capital offence, while abortions performed prior to quickening incurred lesser penalties. An article in the 1832 London Legal Examiner justified the new laws on the grounds of protecting women from the dangerous abortion techniques which were popular at the time:

“The reason assigned for the punishment of abortion is not that thereby an embryo human being is destroyed, but that it rarely or ever can be effected with drugs without sacrifice of the mother’s life.

In the United States, similar legislative iniatives began in the 1820’s and proceeded state by state as the American frontier moved westward. In 1858, the New Jersey Supreme Court, pronouncing upon the state’s new abortion law, said:

“The design of the statute was not to prevent the procuring of abortions, so much as to guard the health and life of the mother against consequences of such attempts.”

During the nineteenth century, legal barriers to abortion were erected throughout the western world. In 1869 the Canadian Parliament enacted a criminal law which prohibited abortion and punished it with a penalty of life imprisonment. This law mirrored the laws of a number of provinces in pre-Confederation Canada; all of these statutes were more or less modeled on the English legislation of Lord Ellenborough.

Pressure for restrictions was not coming from the general public. Physicians were in the forefront of the crusade to criminalize abortion in England, the U.S. and Canada. They were voicing concern for the health of women and the destruction of fetal life. However, “there is substantial evidence that medical men were concerned not only for the welfare of the potential victims of abortion but also to further the process of establishing and consolidating their status as a profession.” Women were turning to midwives, herbalists, drug dispensers and sometimes quacks to end their pregnancies, and doctors wanted to gain control over the practice of medicine and elevate the status of their profession.

Race and class were also factors in the passage of the new wave of anti-abortion laws. Abortion was increasingly being used by white, married, Protestant, middle and upper class women to control their family size. “Nativists” (those who were “native-born” to the new country) in Canada, for instance, voiced their concern about what they called the “race suicide” of the Anglo-Saxon population9 in relation to the burgeoning French-Canadian and “foreign” immigrant populations. Anglo-Saxon women who refused maternity by employing contraception or abortion were condemned as “traitors to the race”. Accordingly, the Canadian parliament made contraception illegal in 1892, following the example of the U.S.

The Feet of the Unborn......yea.....definitely wasn't a baby

Another interpretation of the trend toward more restrictive abortion legislation focuses on nation states’ demographic concerns. Powerful social pressures for population increase meant that “the concern was perhaps more for the quantity of human beings than for the quality of human life.

In the words of the authors of Our Bodies, Ourselves:

“.just at a time when women’s increasing understanding of conception was helping them to avoid pregnancy, certain governments and religious groups desired continued population growth to fill growing industries and new farmable territories.”

Despite its criminalization, women continued to regard induced miscarriage before the fetus “quickened” as entirely ethical, and were surprised to learn that it was illegal.21 Women saw themselves as doing what was necessary to bring back their menses, to “put themselves right”. In the words of historians Angus and Arlene Tigar McLaren,

“Doctors were never to be totally successful in convincing women of the immorality of abortion. For many it was to remain an essential method of fertility control.”
21

Women continued to have abortions in roughly the same proportions as they had prior to its criminalization.5 After it was criminalized, abortion simply went underground and became a clandestine and therefore much more dangerous operation for women to undergo.

During the latter part of the nineteenth century, European views on the restriction of abortion were spread by the colonial powers throughout Africa, Asia and beyond.2 The strict prohibitions of Spain are reflected in many statutes decreed in South America, for example. Toward the end of the 19th century, China and Japan, at the time under the influence of Western powers, also criminalized abortion for the first time.2

American historian James C. Mohr makes the point that from an historical perspective, the nineteenth century’s wave of restrictive abortion laws can be seen as a deviation from the norm, a period of interruption of the historically tolerant attitude towards abortion.22

Twentieth Century

“From the second half of the 19th century, through World War II, abortion was highly restricted almost everywhere. Liberalization of abortion laws occurred in most of the countries of Eastern and Central Europe in the 1950s and in almost all the remaining developed countries during the 1960s and 1970s. A few developing countries also relaxed their restrictions on abortion during the same period, most notably China and India.”23

A number of factors have been recognized as contributing to this liberalizing trend.24 Attitudes toward sexuality and procreation were changing, and the reduced influence of religious institutions was a related factor.24 In some countries, rubella epidemics and thalidomide created awareness of the need for legal abortion. In others, there was concern about population growth. Illegal abortion had long been a serious public health hazard,25 and eventually women being injured or dying from unnecessarily dangerous abortions became a concern. Arguments were made in favour of the right of poor women to have access to abortion services. More recently, women’s right to control their fertility has been recognized.24

While the pace of abortion law reform has slowed, the overall movement is still in the direction of liberalization. Recently, however, restrictions have increased in a few countries.24

“As often happens when rapid social change occurs, the movement to legalize abortion has generated resistance and a counter movement. Strenuous efforts are being made to increase restrictions on abortion and to block further liberalization of laws, especially in the United States. [and] the former Communist countries,.but [anti-abortionists] are also highly visible in Canada, England, France, Germany, Italy. and other developed as well as developing countries.
”24

The degree of liberalization has varied from country to country. Abortion laws are usually grouped according to “indications”, or circumstances under which abortions can be performed. The most restrictive laws either completely ban abortions or restrict them to cases where the pregnancy poses a risk to the woman’s life. Other laws also consider risks to the physical and mental health of the woman or her fetus. Some also allow abortion for social-medical or economic reasons, as in the case where an additional child will bring undue burdens to an existing family. The broadest category allows abortion on request (usually within the first trimester).


ENDNOTES

1. George Devereux, “A Typological Study of Abortion in 350 Primitive, Ancient and Pre-Industrial Societies”, in Therapeutic Abortion, ed. Harold Rosen, New York: The Julian Press Inc., 1954.

2. H.P. David, “Abortion Policies”, in Abortion and Sterilization: Medical and Social Aspects, J.E. Hodgson, ed., Grune and Stratton, New York, 1981, pp.1-40.

3. Nan Chase, “Abortion: A Long History Can’t Be Stopped”, Vancouver Sun, May 1, 1989.

4. Wendell W. Watters, Compulsory Parenthood: the Truth about Abortion, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1976, p.52.

5. Deborah R. McFarlane, “Induced Abortion: An Historical Overview”, American Journal of Gynaecologic Health, Vo. VII, No. 3, May/June 1993, pp.77-82.

6. Jane Hurst, “The History of Abortion in the Catholic Church: The Untold Story”, Catholics for a Free Choice, Washington, D.C., 1983.

7. Wendell W. Watters, p.79.

8. Ibid, pp.92-3.

9. Alison Prentice et al, Canadian Women: A History, Harcourt Brace

Jovanovich, Canada, pg.165.

10. Donald P. Kommers,”Abortion in Six Countries: A Comparative Legal Analysis,in Abortion, Medicine and the LawFourth edition, J.D. Butler & D.F. Walbert, eds., Facts on File, N.Y.1992, p.312.

11. Janine Brodie et al, The Politics of Abortion, Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1992, p.9.

12. Jimmey Kinney.Ms., April 1973, p.48-9.

13. A. Anne McLellan, “Abortion Law in Canada”, in Abortion, Medicine and the Law, op. cit, p.334.

14. Donald P. Kommers, p.317.

15. James C. Mohr, Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.

16. Constance Backhouse, Petticoats and Prejudice: Women and the Law in Nineteenth Century Canada, Women’s Press, Toronto.

17. Terry, “England”, in Abortion and Protection of the Human Fetus 78, (S. Frankowski and G. Cole, eds., 1987).

18. James C. Mohr, p.244.

19. Wendell W. Watters, p. xv.

20. Boston Women’s Health Book Collective, Our Bodies, Ourselves, 2nd ed. (New York: Simon & Shuster, 1971), p.216-7.

21. Angus McLaren and Arlene Tigar McLaren,The Bedroom and the State: The Changing Practices and Politics of Contraception and Abortion in Canada 1880-1980, M & S,Toronto.,1986, p.38-9.

22. James C. Mohr, p.259.

23. Stanley K. Henshaw, “Induced Abortion: A World Review, 1990”, Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 22, No. 2, March/April 1990, p.78.

24. Stanley K. Henshaw, “Recent Trends in the Legal Status of Induced Abortion”, Journal of Public Health Policy, Summer, 1994, pp.165-172.

SOURCE

NATO in final preparations for new war

NATO preps for new war
Syrian chief warns attack will set Middle East aflame

TEL AVIV – NATO troops are training in Turkey for a Turkish-led NATO invasion of Syria, a senior Syrian diplomatic official claimed to WND.

Separately, informed Middle East security officials said Russia has been inspecting Syrian forces and has been advising Syria about possible Syrian military responses should NATO attack the regime of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

The officials said Russia recently sold Syria a large quantity of Iskander ballistic missiles, and that, in light of the NATO threat, the Russian government renewed its pledge to sell Syria the advanced S-300 anti-missile system.

The Syrian diplomatic official, meanwhile, recognized his country receives general support from Russia, but told WND that Assad’s regime is concerned the European Union and U.S. may offer Russia an economic incentive to scale back Russian support for Syria.

The report comes as Assad reportedly warned yesterday he will set the Middle East on fire if NATO forces attack his country.

“If a crazy measure is taken against Damascus, I will need not more than six hours to transfer hundreds of rockets and missiles to the Golan Heights to fire them at Tel Aviv,” Assad reportedly said, according to Iran’s state-run Fars news agency.

Assad made the comments in a meeting with Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmad Davutoglu, reported Fars.

Fars reported Davutoglu conveyed a warning from NATO and the U.S. that Syria could face an international military campaign if Assad does not halt his violent crackdown on an insurgency targeting the Syrian president’s regime.

Assad also reiterated that Damascus will call on Hezbollah in Lebanon to launch an intensive rocket and missile attack on Israel, reported Fars.

“All these events will happen in three hours, but in the second three hours, Iran will attack the U.S. warships in the Persian Gulf and the U.S. and European interests will be targeted simultaneously,”
Assad was quoted as saying.

While Assad’s remarks could not be immediately verified, Iran, which runs Fars, is a close partner to the Damascus government.

WND first reported in August that Assad is taking military measures to prepare for a possible U.S.-NATO campaign against his regime.

Informed Egyptian security officials told WND Assad instructed the Syrian military to be prepared for an air or ground campaign if the international community determines his pledges of reform are not enough.

Also in August, WND first reported Turkey secretly passed a message to Damascus that if it does not implement major democratic reforms, NATO may attack Assad’s regime, according to Egyptian security officials.

The Egyptian security officials said the message was coordinated with NATO members, specifically with the U.S. and European Union.

The Egyptian officials said Turkish leaders, speaking for NATO, told Assad that he has until March to implement democratization that would allow free elections as well as major constitutional reforms.

Last month, Obama officially asked Assad to step down to pave the way for a democratic system in Syria.

According to informed Middle Eastern security officials speaking to WND, Assad asked his military to make specific preparations in the event of a U.S.-led NATO campaign similar to the military coalition now targeting Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi.

George Soros-funded doctrine with White House ties

The Libya bombings have been widely regarded as a test of a military doctrine called “Responsibility to Protect.”

In his address to the nation in April explaining the NATO campaign in Libya, Obama cited the doctrine as the main justification for U.S. and international airstrikes against Libya.

Responsibility to Protect, or Responsibility to Act, as cited by Obama, is a set of principles, now backed by the United Nations, based on the idea that sovereignty is not a privilege but a responsibility that can be revoked if a country is accused of “war crimes,” “genocide,” “crimes against humanity” or “ethnic cleansing.”

The term “war crimes” has at times been indiscriminately used by various United Nations-backed international bodies, including the International Criminal Court, or ICC, which applied it to Israeli anti-terror operations in the Gaza Strip. There has been fear the ICC could be used to prosecute U.S. troops who commit alleged “war crimes” overseas.

The Global Centre for Responsibility to Protect is the world’s leading champion of the military doctrine.

As WND reported, billionaire activist George Soros is a primary funder and key proponent of the Global Centre for Responsibility to Protect. Several of the doctrine’s main founders also sit on boards with Soros.

WND reported the committee that devised the Responsibility to Protect doctrine included Arab League Secretary General Amre Moussa as well as Palestinian legislator Hanan Ashrawi, a staunch denier of the Holocaust who long served as the deputy of late Palestinian Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat.

Also, the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy has a seat on the advisory board of the 2001 commission that originally founded Responsibility to Protect. The commission is called the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. It invented the term “responsibility to protect” while defining its guidelines.

The Carr Center is a research center concerned with human rights located at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Samantha Power, the National Security Council special adviser to Obama on human rights, was Carr’s founding executive director and headed the institute at the time it advised in the founding of Responsibility to Protect.

With Power’s center on the advisory board, the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty first defined the Responsibility to Protect doctrine.

Power reportedly heavily influenced Obama in consultations leading to the decision to bomb Libya.

Two of the global group’s advisory board members, Ramesh Thakur and Gareth Evans, are the original founders of the doctrine, with the duo even coining the term “responsibility to protect.”

As WND reported, Soros’ Open Society Institute is a primary funder and key proponent of the Global Centre for Responsibility to Protect. Also, Thakur and Evans sit on multiple boards with Soros.

Soros’ Open Society is one of only three nongovernmental funders of the Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. Government sponsors include Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, Rwanda and the U.K.

Board members of the group include former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan, former Ireland President Mary Robinson and South African activist Desmond Tutu. Robinson and Tutu have recently made solidarity visits to the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip as members of a group called The Elders, which includes former President Jimmy Carter.

Annan once famously stated, “State sovereignty, in its most basic sense, is being redefined – not least by the forces of globalization and international co-operation. States are … instruments at the service of their peoples and not vice versa.”

Soros: Right to ‘penetrate nation-states’

Soros himself outlined the fundamentals of Responsibility to Protect in a 2004 Foreign Policy magazine article titled “The People’s Sovereignty: How a New Twist on an Old Idea Can Protect the World’s Most Vulnerable Populations.”

In the article Soros said, “True sovereignty belongs to the people, who in turn delegate it to their governments.”

“If governments abuse the authority entrusted to them and citizens have no opportunity to correct such abuses, outside interference is justified,” Soros wrote. “By specifying that sovereignty is based on the people, the international community can penetrate nation-states’ borders to protect the rights of citizens.

“In particular,” he continued, “the principle of the people’s sovereignty can help solve two modern challenges: the obstacles to delivering aid effectively to sovereign states, and the obstacles to global collective action dealing with states experiencing internal conflict.”

More George Soros ties

“Responsibility” founders Evans and Thakur served as co-chairmen with Vartan Gregorian, president of Carnegie Corp. Charitable Foundation, on the advisory board of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, which invented the term “responsibility to protect.”

In his capacity as co-chairman, Evans also played a pivotal role in initiating the fundamental shift from sovereignty as a right to “sovereignty as responsibility.”

Evans presented Responsibility to Protect at the July 23, 2009, United Nations General Assembly, which was convened to consider the principle.

Thakur is a fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation, which is in partnership with an economic institute founded by Soros.

Soros is on the executive board of the International Crisis Group, a “crisis management organization” for which Evans serves as president-emeritus.

WND previously reported how the group has been petitioning for the U.S. to normalize ties with the Muslim Brotherhood, the main opposition in Egypt, where longtime U.S. ally Hosni Mubarak was recently toppled.

Aside from Evans and Soros, the group includes on its board Egyptian opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei, as well as other personalities who champion dialogue with Hamas, a violent offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood.

WND also reported the crisis group has petitioned for the Algerian government to cease “excessive” military activities against al-Qaida-linked groups and to allow organizations seeking to create an Islamic state to participate in the Algerian government.

Soros’ own Open Society Institute has funded opposition groups across the Middle East and North Africa, including organizations involved in the current chaos.

‘One World Order’

WND reported that doctrine founder Thakur recently advocated for a “global rebalancing” and “international redistribution” to create a “New World Order.

In a piece last March in the Ottawa Citizen newspaper, “Toward a new world order,” Thakur wrote, “Westerners must change lifestyles and support international redistribution.”

He was referring to a United Nations-brokered international climate treaty in which he argued, “Developing countries must reorient growth in cleaner and greener directions.”

In the opinion piece, Thakur then discussed recent military engagements and how the financial crisis has impacted the U.S.

“The West’s bullying approach to developing nations won’t work anymore – global power is shifting to Asia,” he wrote.

“A much-needed global moral rebalancing is in train,” he added.

Thakur continued: “Westerners have lost their previous capacity to set standards and rules of behavior for the world. Unless they recognize this reality, there is little prospect of making significant progress in deadlocked international negotiations.”

Thakur contended “the demonstration of the limits to U.S. and NATO power in Iraq and Afghanistan has left many less fearful of ‘superior’ Western power.”

Read more: NATO preps for new war SOURCE